PSY 101 Exam 1 Complete Textbook Notes
PSY 101 Exam 1 Complete Textbook Notes PSY 101
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Decker on Sunday January 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at Michigan State University taught by R. Lucas in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 01/25/15
0 Chapter 1 Thinking Critically With Psychological Science 0 O The hindsight bias quotlknewitallalong phenomenon Give half the members of a group some purported psychological nding and give the other half an opposite result both groups will view the ndings as true and unsurprising When two opposite ndings both seem like common sense there is a problem Random sequences often don t look random Hindsight bias overcon dence and our tendency to perceive patterns in random events often lead us to overestimate our intuition But scienti c inquiry can help us sift reality from illusion Individual cases can suggest fruitful ideas What s true of all of us can be glimpsed in any one of us But to discern the general truths that cover individual cases we must answer questions with other research methods Naturalistic observation Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation Survey A technique for ascertaining the self reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group usually by questioning a representative random sample of the group The best basis for generalizing is from a representative sample Before accepting survey ndings think critically Consider the sample You cannot compensate for an unrepresentative sample by simply adding more people Correlation A measure of the extent of which two factors vary together and thus of how well either factor predicts the other Correlation coef cient A statistical index of the relationship between two things from 1 to 1 Scatterplot A graphed cluster of dots each of which represents the values of two variables The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables The amount of scatter suggest the strength of the correlation little scatter indicates high correlation A correlation coef cient helps us see the world more clearly by revealing the extent to which things relate Association does not prove causation Correlation indicates the possibility of a causeeffect relationship but does not prove such Unlike correlational studies which uncover naturally occurring relationships an experiment manipulates a factor to determine its effect Independent variable The experimental factor that is manipulated the variable whose effect is being studied Confounding variable A factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment Dependent variable The outcome factor the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable Mode Most frequently occurring scores in a distribution Mean The arithmetic average of a distribution Median The middle score in a distribution Always note which measure of central tendency is reported If it is a mean consider whether a few atypical scores could be distorting it 0 Chapter 2 The Biology of Mind 0 Dendrite bers receive information and conduct it toward the cell body From there the cell s lengthy axon ber passes the message through its terminal branches to other neurons or to muscles or glands Myelin sheath a layer of fatty tissue that insulates axons and speeds their impulses Action potential a brief electrical charge that travels down a neuron s axon The axon s surface is selectively permeable The meeting point between neurons is called a synapse When an action potential reaches the knoblike terminals at an axon s end it triggers the release of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters Endorphins quotmorphine withinquot natural opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure Agonist molecules may be similar enough to a neurotransmitter to bind to its receptor and mimic its effects Antagonists also bind to receptors but their effect is instead to block a neurotransmitter s functioning Our somatic nervous system enables voluntary control of our skeletal muscles Our autonomic nervous system ANS controls our glands and the muscles of our internal organs in uencing such functions as glandular activity heartbeat and digestion The sympathetic nervous system arouses and expends energy When the stress subsides your parasympathetic nervous system will produce the opposite effects conserving energy as it calms you by decreasing your heartbeat lowering your blood sugar and so forth Endocrine system the body s quotslowquot chemical communication system a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream Hormones chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands travel through the bloodstream and affect other tissues Adrenal glands a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine that help arouse the body in times of stress Pituitary gland the endocrine system s most in uential gland Under the in uence of the hypothalamus the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands Lesion tissue destruction A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue Electroencephalogram EEG an ampli ed recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain s surface These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp PET positron emission tomography scan a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task MRI magnetic resonance imaging a technique that uses magnetic elds and radio waves to produce computer generated images of soft tissue MRI scans show brain anatomy fMRl functional MRI a technique for revealing blood ow and therefore brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans fMRl scans show brain function Brain Stem the oldest part and central core of the brain beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival funcUons Medulla the base of the brainstem controls heartbeat and breathing Thalamus the brain s sensory switchboard located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla Reticular formation a nerve network that travels through the brainstem and plays an important role in controlling arousal Cerebellum the quotlittle brainquot at the rear of the brainstem functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance Limbic system neural system including the hippocampus amygdala and hypothalamus located below the cerebral hemispheres associated with emotions and drives Amygdala two limabeansized neural clusters in the limbic system linked to emotion Hypothalamus a neural structure lying below hypo the thalamus it directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temp helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland and is linked to emotion and reward Cerebral cortex the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres the body s ultimate control and informationprocessing center Glial cells glia cells in the nervous system that support nourish and protect neurons they may also play a role in learning and thinking Frontal lobes portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments Parietal lobes portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear receives sensory input for touch and body position Occipital lobes portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head includes areas that receive information from the visual elds Temporal lobes portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears includes the auditory areas each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear Motor cortex an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements Sensory cortex areas at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations Association areas areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions rather they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning remembering thinking and speaking Plasticity the brain s ability to change especially during childhood by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience Neurogenesis the formation of new neurons Corpus callosum the large band of neural bers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them Split brain a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain s two hemispheres by cutting the bers mainly those of the corpus callosum connecting them Although the left hemisphere is adept at making quick literal interpretations of language the right hemisphere Excels in making inferences Helps us modulate our speech to make meaning clear Helps orchestrate our sense of self Chapter 4 Nature Nurture and Human Diversity 41 Behavior Genetics Predicting Individual Differences Genes Our codes for life Behavior genetics the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental in uences on behavior Environment every nongenetic in uence from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us Chromosomes threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes DNA a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes Genes the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein Genome the complete instructions for making an organism consisting of all the genetic material in that organism s chromosomes Twin and adoption studies Identical twins develop from a single monozygotic fertilized egg that splits in two Thus they are genetically identicanature s own human clones Although identical twins have the same genes they don t always have the same number of copies of those genes Fraternal twins develop from separate dizygotic fertilized eggs They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters Biological versus adoptive relatives People who grow up together whether biologically related or not do not much resemble one another in personality In traits such as extraversion and agreeableness adoptees are more similar to their biological parents than to their caregiving adoptive parents The environment shared by a family s children has virtually no discernible impact on their personalities The minimal sharedenvironment effect does not mean that adoptive parenting is a fruitless venture A pair of adopted children or identical twins will especially during adolescence have more similar religious beliefs if reared together Parenting matters Temperament and Heredity Temperament a person s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity Our biologically rooted temperament helps form our enduring personality 42 The New Frontier Molecular Genetics Molecular genetics the sub eld of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes Given that genes typically are not soo players a goal of molecular behavior genetics is to nd some of the many genes that together orchestrate traits such as body weight sexual orientation and extraversion 43 Heritability the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes The heritability of a trait may vary depending on the range of populations and environments studied Heritability refers to the extent to which differences among people are attributable to genes Although height is 90 heritable South Koreans with their better diets average six inches taller than North Koreans who come from the same genetic stock 44 GeneEnvironment Interaction To say that genes and experience are both important is true But more precisely they interact Interaction the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor such as environment depends on another factor such as heredity Epigenetics the study of in uences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change 45 Evolutionary Psychology Understanding Human Nature Evolutionary psychology the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind using principles of natural selection Natural selection the principle that among the range of inherited trait variations those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations Natural selection and adaptation Mutation a random error in gene replication that leads to a change Our adaptive exibility in responding to different environments contributes to our tness our ability to survive and reproduce Evolutionary success helps explain similarities No more than 5 of the genetic differences among humans arise from population group differences Some 95 of genetic variation exists within populations 46 An evolutionary explanation of human sexuality Gender in psychology the biologically and socially in uenced characteristics by which people de ne male and female University men in one study preferred casual hookups while women preferred planned dating Casual impulsive sex is most frequent among males with traditional masculine attitudes Nature selects behaviors that increase the likelihood of sending one s genes into the future As mobile gene machines we are designed to prefer whatever worked for our ancestors in their environments 48 Experience and Brain Development During early childhoodwhie excess connections are still on callyoungsters can most easily master such skills as the grammar and accent of another language Lacking any exposure to language before adolescence a person will never master any language The maturing brain s rule use it or lose it o 49 How Much Credit or Blame Do Parents Deserve The power of parenting is clearest at the extremes the abused children who become abusive the neglected who become neglectful the loved but rmly handled who become self con dent and socially competent quotParents should be given less credit for kids who turn out great and blamed less for kids who don tquot quotIt takes a village to raise a childquot Cultural In uences Culture the enduring behaviors ideas attitudes values and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next Norm an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior Norms prescribe proper behavior Variation across cultures When we don t understand what s expected or accepted we may experience culture shock People from Mediterranean cultures have perceived northern Europeans as efficient 411 412 but cold and preoccupied with punctuality Variations over time Had you fallen asleep in the United States in 1960 and awakened today you would open your eyes to a culture with more divorce and depression Cultures vary Cultures change And cultures shape our lives Culture and the Self Individualism giving priority to the one s own goals over group goals and de ning one s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identi cations Collectivism giving priority to the goals of one s group often one s extended family or work group and de ning one s identity accordingly South Koreans express collectivism lndividualism s bene ts can come at the cost of more loneliness higher divorce and homicide rates and more stressrelated disease Developmental similarities across groups As members of different ethnic and cultural groups we may differ in surface ways but as members of one species we seem subject to the same psychological forces Gender Similarities and Differences Aggression physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone The aggression gender gap pertains to direct physical aggression such as hitting rather than verbal relational aggression such as excluding someone As leaders men tend to be more directive even autocratic women tend to be more democratic more welcoming of subordinates input in decisionmaking Men are more likely than women to hazard answers rather than admit they don t know a phenomenon called the male answer syndrome Females are more interdependent than males Bonds and feelings of support are even stronger among women than among men 413 As empowered people generally do men value freedom and selfreliance which helps explain why men of all ages worldwide are less religious and pray less Gender differences in social connectedness power and other traits peak in late adolescence and early adulthood The Nature of Gender Our Biology X Chromosome the sex chromosome found in both men and women Females have two X chromosomes males have one An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child Y Chromosome the sex chromosome found only in males When paired with an X chromosome from the mother it produces a male child Testosterone the most important of the male sex hormones Both males and females have it but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty Role a set of expectations norms about a social position de ning how those in the position ought to behave Gender role a set of expected behaviors for males or for females Social learning theory the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished Gender identity our sense of being male or female Gender typing the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role The Nurture of Gender Our Culture Genderrole diversity over time and space indicates that culture has a big in uence Social learning shapes gender schemas Before age 1 children begin to discriminate male and female voices and faces After age 2 language forces children to begin organizing their worlds on the basis of gender Transgender an umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex o 415 Re ections on Nature and Nurture Genes form us But it also is true that our experiences form us In our families and in our peer relationships we learn ways of thinking and acting Differences initiated by our nature may be ampli ed by our nurture We are the product of nature and nurture but we are also an open system Genes are all pervasive but not all powerful people may defy their genetic bent to reproduce by electing celibacy Culture too is all pervasive but not all powerful people may defy peer pressures and do the opposite of the expected Mind Matters The human environment is not like the weathersomething that just happens We are its architects Our hopes goals and expectations in uence our future And that is what enables cultures to vary and to change so quickly Complete List of Terms For Exam 1 Con rmation Bias a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence Illusory Correlation the perception of relationship where none exists Case Study an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles Survey a technique for ascertaining the selfreported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group usually by questioning a representative random sample group Naturalistic Observation observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation Theory an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events Hypothesis a testable prediction often implied by a theory Operational De nition a statement of procedures operations used to de ne research variables For example human intelligence may be operationally de ned as what an intelligence test measures Correlational Coef cient A statistical index of the relationship between two things between 1 and 1 Mean average of a distribution obtained by adding scores then dividing by the number of scores Median the middle score in a distribution Mode the most frequently occurring scores in a distribution Standard Deviation a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score Independent Variable the experimental factor that is manipulated the variable whose effect is being studied Dependent Variable the outcome factor the variable that may change in response to manipulations of independent variable DoubleBlind Studies an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant blind about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo Control Group the group that is not exposed to the treatment Major Theme 1 Correlation does not equal causation Major Theme 2 Antagonistic systems push against each other to reach a shifting balance point Major Theme 3 The divided self You may feel like a uni ed person but you contain several intelligences that sometimes con ict lnput Lines arteries and afferent arrive nerves Output Lines veins and efferent exit nerves Peripheral Nervous System PNS Autonomic controls self regulated actions of internal organs and glands and Somatic controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles Autonomic Nervous System ANS Sympathetic arousing ght or ight and Parasympathetic calming Cell Body the cell s life support center Dendrites receive messages from other cells Axon passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons muscles or glands Neural Impulse electrical signal traveling down the axon Myelin Sheath covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses Terminal Branches of Axon forms junctions with other cells Common Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine Dopamine Norepinephrine Endorphins Serotonin Medulla the base of the brainstem controls heartbeat and breathing Reticular Formation a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal Thalamus large eggshaped structures that form the dorsal subdivision of the diencephalon Cerebellum quotlittle brainquot attached to the rear of the brainstem that helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance Limbic System a system of functionally related neural structures in the brain that are involved in emotional behavior Amygdale an almondshaped group of neurons located deep in the temporal lobe that is involved in processing memories and emotional reactions Hypothalamus a neural structure lying below the thalamus directs eating drinking body temp helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland and is linked to emotion and reward Brainstem the oldest part and central core of the brain beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull responsible for automatic survival funcUons Hippocampus processes memory if list you are unable to process new memories Cerebral Cortex the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres the body s ultimate control and information processing center LowerLevel Brain Structures Medulla Cerebellum Pons Thalamus Hypothalamus Frontal Lobes portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments Parietal Lobes portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear receives sensory input for touch and body position Occipital Lobes portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head includes areas that receive information from the visual elds Temporal Lobes portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears includes the auditory areas each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear Motor Cortex an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements Sensory Cortex area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations Association Areas areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions rather they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning remembering thinking and speaking Corpus Callosum the large band of neural bers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
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