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Notes Lecture 8

by: Keziah Notetaker

Notes Lecture 8 14407

Marketplace > Brooklyn college > Psychlogy > 14407 > Notes Lecture 8
Keziah Notetaker
Brooklyn college
GPA 3.4

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Psychology 2100
Alison Barren
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keziah Notetaker on Wednesday November 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 14407 at Brooklyn college taught by Alison Barren in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Psychology 2100 in Psychlogy at Brooklyn college.

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Date Created: 11/11/15
Lecture 8­    Justification, Cognitive Dissonance Theory, and Reducing Dissonance    The desire to maintain a stable, positive self­image is a powerful determinant of behavior.    ­We tend to see ourselves as reasonable, moral, and smart.  ­When confronted with opposite information, discomfort is experienced.    Impact Bias: ​ Overestimation of intensity and duration of future negative events.    ­Despite Impact Bias requiring a thorough thought process beforehand, people can adapt quickly  to aversive events when there wasn’t time for Impact Bias because dissonance reduction is  unconscious and automatic.    Cognitive Dissonance: ​ Feelings of discomfort when a behavior conflicts with an attitude.    ­Especially when it threatens self­image    Individual Differences    ● People with high self esteem tend to have more dissonance    ● People with low self esteem tend to have less dissonance    Reducing Dissonance    ● Changing our behavior  ­This is the most direct way to reduce dissonance, but also challenging    ● Justifying our behavior  ­This involves changing dissonant cognition    Self Justification: ​ The justification of effort; tendency to increase our liking for something we  worked hard to attain.  ­Especially true if you don’t initially enjoy the task  ­This is an attempt to reduce cognitive dissonance  ­When greater effort is put into something, cognitive dissonance makes you like it more in order  to     justify your efforts if/when it turns bad.    Research: Aronson and Mills, 1959  Talking about Sex  Group 1: Required to read a list of sex related words in front of a crowd (severe treatment)  Group 2: Required to read terms aloud, but only to lab tech (moderate treatment)  Group 3: Read nothing (control group)    After each group completed their required action, they listened to a discussion on sex behavior in  animals, something much more boring than most would expect. Attitudes were assessed about  liking the topic, and group 1 with severe treatment liked the discussion most of all 3 groups.     External Justification:​  Dissonant behavior explained by outside causes (e.g. large salary,  reward)  ­Leads to no attitude change since there’s an external factor to blame the situation on    Internal Justification: ​ Attempt to reduce dissonance by changing something about yourself  (e.g. attitudes, beliefs)  ­Leads to attitude change since there is no external factor directly involved    Insufficient Justification:​  With insufficient external justification, attitude change occurs (to  match expressed views); this process requires more internal justification.    Research:   Group 1: Receive $1 for participation  Group 2: Receive $20 for participation  Participant does boring task (turning pegs)  After finishing, the participant is asked to tell the next person coming in that it was fun  Everyone in group 1 emphasized the enjoyment based on internal factors since $1 isn’t enough  motive to say money was the reason (an external factor)  Everyone in group 2 emphasized the enjoyment based on external factors since $20 is enough  motive (more likely to mention getting paid than those in group 1).    Insufficient Punishment: ​ Insufficient external justification for resisting a desired activity; this  leads to dissonance and the forbidden activity is devalued.  ­Punishment adds value to the activity since it’s the external justification for not doing something  ­Less severe or no punishment devalues the activity  ­Insufficient punishment leads to cognitive dissonance    Research:   Kids shown many toys in a room, with the coolest being a robot.  Group 1: Told to not play with the robot at first  Group 2: Told they can’t play with the robot  Results: The severe condition (Group 2) likes the robot more and a larger amount of kids ran to  play with it at first compared to group 1.     Self­Persuasion: ​ A long­term form of attitude change that results from attempts at  self­justification  ­Results from insufficient reward/punishment    Large Reward/Severe Punishment leads to External Justification (I do or think this because I  have to); This leads to temporary change    Small Reward/Mild Punishment leads to Internal Justification (I do or think this because I have  convinced myself it is right); This leads to a lasting change    Decisions     Post­decision dissonance: ​ The dissonance experienced after making decisions    ● Partly due to irrevocability­the illusion of definitiveness and conclusiveness  ● Reduced by enhancing the appeal of your choice and devaluing the rejected choice    Lowballing:​  Getting people to agree to something (writing a down­payment check for an initial  figure you provide) leads to a significant likelihood they will say yes to a larger request (after  talking to a manager, you “realize it was too low” and raise the price). This works because:    ● Commitment already occurred (the down­payment)  ● Your thought process is triggered by the excitement of getting something new  ● The new price is only slightly higher    Immoral Decisions    ● Dissonance occurs as a result of acting immoral  ­We act against our own morals when we feel the benefit will outweigh the cost  ­Our attitude will change in an attempt to justify the ethical choice we made    Justifying Bad Deeds    ● Dissonance occurs when we harm others   ● To resolve this, we may dehumanize our victims  ● We are more likely to dehumanize if the victim is innocent    Justifying Good Deeds    ● The Ben Franklin Effect: A phenomenon that occurs when we like someone more after  we do them a favor  ­Related to the justification of effort  ­Franklin asked an opposing legislator who hated him if he could borrow a rare book. To  be     polite, the legislator couldn’t refuse. When Franklin returned the book, the two became  best     friends  ­This is because you can’t rationalize loaning something to someone you hate, so you  have to    convince yourself that you like them    Rationalization    ● We rationalize to maintain our self­esteem and reduce our dissonance  ● Rationalization influences perceptual confirmation  ­People are motivated to selectively remember past information    Hypocrisy Induction:​  Creating dissonance by having individuals make statements counter to  their behavior and reminding them of the inconsistency. This can lead to a change in behavior.  


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