Notes Lecture 9
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keziah Notetaker on Wednesday November 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 14407 at Brooklyn college taught by Alison Barren in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Psychology 2100 in Psychlogy at Brooklyn college.
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Date Created: 11/11/15
Lecture 9 Attitude and Attitude Change Attitudes Evaluations of people objects activities or ideas Can help determine our behaviors sometimes Three Component Model 1 Cognitive Based Attitudes Beliefs about the object Affective Based Attitudes Emotional reaction toward the object 3 Behavioral Based Attitudes nonemotional Reactions toward the object Example Obama A cognitive based attitude could be that he s intelligent an affective based attitude could be to love or hate him a behavioral based attitude could be to vote for him Attitude Formation Attitudes originate from Values Morals and belief system Sensations Liking the smell of something Genes Proven through studies of twins separated at birth identical vs fraternal Mere Exposure Effect The more you re eXposed to something the more you like it repeated eXposure makes you like something more this has to do with familiarity O Conditioning and Learning Classical Conditioning Attitude formed based on association between objectperson and pleasant or unpleasant event the process is broken down into three steps 1 Unconditioned stimulus gives an unconditioned response 2 Unconditioned stimulus plus neutral stimulus gives unconditioned response 3 Neutral stimulus gives conditioned response 0 Repeated pairing of unconditioned stimulus and neutral stimulus results in conditioning Plugging in the above steps for Pavlov s experiment with dogs the stimuli was as follows 1 When the dogs saw food they salivated 2 When the dogs saw food and heard a bell they salivated 3 When the dogs heard a hell they associated it with the food and salivated despite there being no food to eat Unconditioned Stimulus Food Unconditioned Response Salivation Neutral Stimulus The bell which after paired with food several times becomes conditioned stimulus Conditioned Response Salivation from hearing bell even if no food is present Operant Conditioning Behaviors and attitudes become more or less frequent depending on if they are followed by reward or punishment Observational LearningModeling A type of learning in which people s attitudes and behaviors are in uenced by watching other people s attitudes and behaviors Example Parents who want their kids to wear helmets will not just wear helmets themselves behavior They ll be happy about it too attitude Explicit vs Implicit Attitudes Explicit Consciously endorsed and easily reported lling out surveys Implicit Involuntary uncontrollable and unconscious Implicit Association Test IAT Measures attitude toward race age gender sexuality etc Focuses on stereotype pairs congruent male science vs incongruent female science Lexical Decision Tests Words appear and the participant has to choose whether they are grammatically correct or not the faster the participant answers especially when correct the stronger a connection they have with the word and the more definite their opinion on it Attitude Change Attitudes can change by 0 Changing behavior 0 Changing cognitions 0 Changing emotions Persuasive Communication Messages advocating a particular side of an issue Fear Arousing Communications Messages that attempt to change an attitude by arousing fear Example Nonsmoking campaigns with audio of someone coughing and struggling to breathe due to emphysema from smoking Elaboration Likelihood Model There are two routes in which attitude change can occur 1 Central Route Thinking carefully about a message In uenced by the strength of the arguments 2 Peripheral Route Not thinking carefully about a message In uenced by super cial characteristics Under certain conditions people are motivated to pay attention to either Central facts or the Peripheral cues Use Central when the person you re talking to has a high interest in the subject and it s relevant to them Use Peripheral when the person is distracted and in a hurry HeuristicSystematic Model Another similar model of two ways attitude can change 1 Systematic Route Involves comprehensive analysis of an argument 2 Heuristic Route Mental shortcuts used to make quick judgments less cognitive effort Factors that In uence Persuasion Yale Attitude Change Approach 0 Attitude change depends on three things is The Source Who Attractiveness and likeability The more agreeable you are to who you re persuading the more successful you ll be Similarity The person you re trying to persuade will believe you more if they can relate to you Credibility If you have evidence of training experience people will trust you more Content What The message content of the arguments presented strongweak Length long is more persuasive if the argument is strong less persuasive if weak Discrepancy if the attitude of who you re trying to persuade is too different from what presented you will fail to persuade them Strong emotional connection to the subject leads to a lower likelihood of change Audience Where Demographic Factors Young people are more easily persuaded because of having lower attitude stability Intelligence Lower intelligenceMore easily in uenced Attitudes and Behavior to see they LaPiere 1934 spent 2 years visiting 251 different establishments with a Chinese couple if anyone would refuse them due to race Only one place turned them down in person However when a questionnaire was sent out posttrip to each business visited asking if would serve a Chinese customer the majority said they would turn them down There are several things that could have in uenced the results of this experiment 0 LaPiere was with the couple everywhere and he was white What would have happened if he at least wasn t right next to them 0 There s more pressure to be inviting and show your good side when someone is there in person instead of simply answering a question on paper with no face attached Attitudes and Spontaneous Behavior Attitude can predict behavior sometimes Attitude accessibility Ease with which one s attitudes come to mind Spontaneous behavior is predicted by highly accessible attitudes positive or negative Attitudes and Deliberate Behavior Theory of Planned Behavior Deliberate behavior is predicted by intentions which are comprised of 1Attitude toward behavior a speci c behavior not behavior in general the more speci c the behavior the more predictive it will be of the attitude 2 This leads to Behavioral Intention which has 2 factors feeding into it Subjective Norms People s beliefs regarding how other people they care about will view their behavior Perceived Behavioral Control Ease with which people believe they can perform the behavior 3 Everything above then leads to the Behavior itself Advertising is a powerful way to shape attitudes Subliminal Messages Unconsciously perceived messages that might in uence attitudes and behaviors Resisting Persuasion Forewarning People are made aware that they re about to get a persuasive message This lowers the likelihood of being susceptible to the message Attitude Inoculation Exposure to a weak version of a persuasive message strengthens people s ability to resist the message later on This works like a vaccine Being Alert to Product Placement To counteract people s tendency to avoid ads companies look for ways of displaying products during moviestv this is related to subliminal messaging to the extent that you aren t necessarily taking in the product consciously but might still see it in your peripheral Vision and therefore process it unconsciously
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