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Development Chapter 3

by: alliemartinnn Notetaker

Development Chapter 3 NURS 2001

alliemartinnn Notetaker
U of M
GPA 3.51

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About this Document

Infant Development
Human Growth and Development: A Life Span Approach
Robin Austin
Class Notes
Human, development, Nursing, Infant, baby
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by alliemartinnn Notetaker on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NURS 2001 at University of Minnesota taught by Robin Austin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Human Growth and Development: A Life Span Approach in Nursing and Health Sciences at University of Minnesota.


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Date Created: 03/28/16
Chapter 3 Infant Development Growth and Development in Infancy ● Height and Weight ○ Average weight at birth: 7.5 lbs ○ Average length at birth: 20 in ○ Head Sparing= biological mechanism that protects the brain from  malnutrition; the entire body will shrink but the head will not ● Brain Development ○ Birth ­ 5 Years: Extension of Sensitive Period for brain  development  ■ Negative vs positive experiences ■ Epigenetics ■ Building synapses ■ Pruning of synapses ○ Mental Stimulation ■ Brain growth, facilitating neural connections ○ Toxic Stress can cause harm to mental development ○ Protection against developmental harms ■ Building resilience in young children: supportive  people, effective public systems, good experiences ○ Shaken Baby Syndrome ■ Life threatening injury that occurs when an infant is forcefully shaken back and forth ■ Ruptures blood vessels in the brain and breaks  neural connections ■ Damage to front and back of the brain ○ Infants have an inborn drive to remedy deficits ○ Resilience ■ Developmental process where children can use  internal and external resources to achieve positive adaptation despite prior  adversity ○ Plasticity ○ Sleep ■ Sleep specifics vary due to biology and social  environment ■ Newborns sleep 15­17 hours a day in one to three  hour segments ■ Newborn sleep is primarily active sleep; high  proportion of REM sleep ○ Co­Sleeping ■ Cultural Implications ■ Pros: ● Easier response time ● Less parental exhaustion ● More convenient for breast feeding ■ Cons: ● Higher SID rate ● ASSB (accidental suffocation and  strangulation in bed) ■ Recommendation: Room sharing without bed  sharing ● Sensing, Perceiving and Moving ○ Sensory Development ■ Parts of cortex develop rapidly ■ Precedes intellectual and motor development ■ Sensation= response of a sensory system when it  detects a stimulus ■ Perception= mental processing of sensory  information when brain interprets a sensation ○ Hearing ■ Develops during last trimester of pregnancy ■ Most advanced sense at birth ■ Speech perception by 4 months old ● Brain and auditory capacity to hear  human speech ● Able to discriminate between native  language and others ○ Vision ■ Least mature sense when born ■ Can focus between 4­30 inches away ■ Experience and maturation of visual cortex improve shape recognition, visual scanning, and details ■ Binocular vision at 3 months ○ Touch ■ Very acute sense of touch in infants ■ First touch sensations: intrauterine environment,  swaddling, rocking/bouncing ■ Pain and Temperature ● Connected to touch ○ Pain ■ By late gestation babies have the components  needed to perceive pain ■ Preterm and term infants demonstrate similar or  exaggerated responses to pain compared with older children and adults ○ Motor Skills ■ Gross Motor= physical abilities using large body  movements ■ Course of Development= cephalocaudal ■ Fine Motor= small body movements;  synchronization of hands/fingers with eyes ■ Dynamic Systems Underlying Motor Skills: ● Muscle Strength ● Brain Maturation ● Practice ● Sensations and motor skills enhance: social interaction, comfort, learning ● Promoting Good Health ○ Stimulation and positive experiences ○ Good Health Checks ■ Start after birth, continue to be checked every few  months for the first year ■ Immunizations ● For pregnant mothers, newborns, and children ○ Adequate Nutrition ■ Breastfeeding reduces the risk of all infant diseases; children who are breastfed are less likely to develop allergies, asthma,  obesity, heart disease ■ As the child grows, the composition of breast milk  adjusts to the baby’s changing nutritional needs ○ World Health ■ Infant mortality rate worldwide has dropped 2% per year since 1990 ■ Poorest nations: 93% of newborns who survive the  first month live to adulthood ■ Malnutrition ● Protein­Calorie Malnutrition=  insufficient food intake; can result in several illnesses, severe  weight loss, death ● Stunting= Failure of children to grow to a normal height for their age due to severe and chronic  malnutrition ● Wasting= Tendency for children to  be severely underweight for their age due to malnutrition ● Effects: ○ Abnormal brain  development ○ Reduced immunity ○ Direct result in  diseases Brain Development in Infancy ● Stimulation ○ Playing, encouraging movement, hearing words all increase the  amount of brian development ● Stages of Sensorimotor Intelligence ○ Primary Circular Reactions ■ Stage 1 (birth­1 month) ■ Stage 2 (1­4 months) ○ Secondary Circular Reactions ■ Stage 3 (4­8 months) ■ Stage 4 (8­12 months) ○ Tertiary Circular Reactions ■ Stage 5 (12­18 months) ■ Stage 6 (18­24 months) ● Piaget’s Theories ○ Sensorimotor Intelligence ■ Piaget’s term for how infants think ■ Using/adapting senses and motor skills during first  period of cognitive development ○ Object Permanence ■ Realization that objects and people still exist, even  though they can’t be seen/heard ● Infant Cognition ○ Information­Processing Theory ■ Modeled on computer functioning ● process info, not just respond to it ● Analyze info from the environment ■ Involves step by step description of mechanisms of  thought ○ Early Memory ■ Infants can create memories, but only under specific situations ○ Early Communication ■ Child­Directed Speech ● High pitched, simplified and  repetitive way adults speak to infants ■ Babbling ● Repetition of certain syllables that  begins when babies are 6­9 months ■ Naming Explosion ● Sudden increase in infant’s  vocabulary, especially in nouns, that begins at 18 months of age ○ Language Learning ■ First Words ● At 1 year babies speak a few words ● Gradually increases (1­2 new words  per week) ● Holophrase= single word used to  express a complete thought ■ Cultural Differences ● Infants differ in use of parts of  speech depending on the language they are using ● Cultures have practices that enhance  social learning, including talking ■ Mastering Two Languages ● Bilingual toddlers can understand the difference between 2 languages  ● Implicitly track number of words and phrases and learn those used most often ● Enhanced executive function,  problem solving, critical thinking, multitasking, attention ■ Learning Language ● Infants need to be taught language  and speech ● Infants teach themselves (drive to  communicate)


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