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Development Chapters 5&6

by: alliemartinnn Notetaker

Development Chapters 5&6 NURS 2001

alliemartinnn Notetaker
U of M
GPA 3.51

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About this Document

Early Childhood, part 2
Human Growth and Development: A Life Span Approach
Robin Austin
Class Notes
Human, development, Nursing, Early, Childhood
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by alliemartinnn Notetaker on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NURS 2001 at University of Minnesota taught by Robin Austin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Human Growth and Development: A Life Span Approach in Nursing and Health Sciences at University of Minnesota.


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Date Created: 03/28/16
Chapter 5 & 6 Early Childhood Body Changes ● Growth Patterns ○ Children become slimmer as the body lengthens ○ Every year between ages 2­6, well­nourished children will gain 4.5 lbs and 3 in on average ○ Center of gravity shifts breastbone → belly ● Nutrition ○ Need fewer calories per lb of body weight than infants  ○ Lower income families more vulnerable to obesity­ many rely on  fast food ○ Overfeeding and obesity are common occurrences today ○ Nutritional Deficiencies ■ Overfed but low in nutrients ■ Lack of micronutrients is severe; supplements aren’t always enough ● Oral Health  ○ Tooth decay affects ⅓ of young children in USA ○ Caused by high sugar and low fiber ○ Severe tooth decay can lead to malformation of teeth and jaw ● Environmental Harms ○ Pollutants harm younger brains more than older ones ○ More research on pollutants and pesticides being done ● Allergies and Obsessions ○ 3­8% of all children have a food allergy ○ Most common: milk, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, wheat, shellfish ○ “Just Right” Foods ■ Children can be extremely picky about food and  how it looks ■ Normal in children under 6 Avoidable Injury ● Accidents ○ Children ages 2­6 more at risk for fatal accidents than older  children ○ Injury control/protection very important ○ Prevention ■ Primary Prevention ● immunizations, avoiding smoking ■ Secondary Prevention ● health screenings ■ Tertiary Prevention ● slow down progression of diseases Brain Development ● Size ○ By age 2, brain weighs 75% of total adult weight ○ Brain is 90% of final weight by age 6 ○ Extensive dendrite growth and pruning ● Speed of Thought ○ New and extensive myelination ○ Myelin speeds signal transmissions ● The Cortex ○ Very limited in infancy ○ Develops mainly between ages 2­6 ○ Before maturation, children have very little attention span ○ Maturation of cortex leads to: ■ More regular sleep ■ Emotions more responsive ■ Decrease in tantrums ● Corpus Callosum ○ Grows and myelinates rapidly ○ Communication between brain hemispheres ● Thinking ○ Preoperational Thought ■ More symbolic ■ Egocentric ■ Can’t mentally reverse mental processes ■ Intuitive over logical thought Emotional Development ● Emotional Regulation ○ Connections between limbic system and prefrontal cortex ● Initiative vs Guilt ○ Erikson’s 3rd psychosocial stage ○ Children take on new skills are are made to feel guilty when they  mess up pr are not successful ● Pride in Oneself ○ Self Esteem= evaluation of own self worth ○ Self Concept= understanding of self ○ Protective Optimism= children predict that they can do anything  and everything ■ Helps them try new things ● Play and Activity ○ Types of play include: ■ Solitary ■ Onlooker ■ Parallel ■ Associative Cooperative ● Parenting Styles ○ Styles differ in: ■ Expressions of warmth ■ Discipline ■ Communication ■ Expectations of maturity ○ Authoritarian ■ little communication ■ high behavior standards ■ strict punishment ○ Permissive ■ few rules ■ lots of warmth ■ few expectations of maturity ○ Authoritative ■ set limits and enforce rules ■ flexible ■ listen to children ○ Neglectful ■ indifferent ■ not involved in child’s life


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