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Chapters 10 & 11 Notes

by: Ericsquirrel

Chapters 10 & 11 Notes PSYC 3970

Marketplace > Auburn University > Psychlogy > PSYC 3970 > Chapters 10 11 Notes
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Here are the notes from class based on chapters 10 and 11 from the textbook!
Introduction to Forensic Psychology
Dr. Apryl Alexander
Class Notes
Forensic Psychology, Introduction to Forensic Psychology, Psychology, notes




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ericsquirrel on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3970 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Apryl Alexander in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Forensic Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 03/28/16
Chapter 10: Victims of Crimes Chapter Objectives Describe the psychological effects of being victimized and introduce the reader to the role played by mental health professionals in working with victims. Emphasize the multicultural and multiethnic aspects of working with victims. Describe the legal rights of victims. Recap official victimization data. Review homicide victimization research. Review rape and sexual assault victimization research. Address the research on sex trafficking and Internet victimization. Review the effects of commercial sexual exploitations of minors. Briefly summarize property crime victimization. Crime Victims Individuals who have been physically or emotionally harmed by known crimes against themselves or the property. Civil and criminal Victimless Crimes Illegal drug use, prostitution, and illegal gambling The US government has been collecting victimization data over 40 years Focusing on types of crimes highlighted in the media- assaults, burglaries, robberies Little focus on white-collar or political crimes Forensic psychologists and other mental health providers are far more likely to assess and treat victims of rape, child abuse, attempted murder, or robbery Role of Psychologists Psychologists will be increasingly employed as consultants, instructors, expert witnesses, evaluators, therapists, and service providers to victim service organizations in coming years. Examples: Consult with attorneys Assessing crime victims Providing expert testimony on the psychological effects of violent victimization Assessing psychological harm for plaintiffs in civil suits Providing psychological information on victim impact statements One high-demand skill area is the assessment of a victim’s crime-related experiences and responses Psychological therapy and counseling for a wide spectrum of victims of crime, ranging from children to the elderly, is a critical need Psychological evaluation and assessment of victims of child sexual exploitation will be especially in demand in the near future. Multiculturalism Shift in ethno-racial composition- gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, and disability Immigration issues Cultural sensitivity and knowledge Traditional psychology Monocultural Based on Euro-American context APAHandbook of Intercultural Communication Victims with Disabilities Americans with Disabilities Act, 1992 Public and private employers with 15 or more employees Prohibits discrimination Hiring process Terms, conditions, and benefits of employment Access to work-related amenities, facilities, and functions Victimization rates exceed those without disabilities Harassment, discrimination, and emotional abuse Sexual assault Revictimization Prevalence Youth (ages 12-19) with disability experience violence at twice the rate than those without Persons with cognitive disabilities had the highest rate of violent victimization from 2009 to 2011 Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct Legal Rights of Victims Victim’s rights legislation Remedies Restitution or compensation Economic and psychological wholeness An attempt to restore a victim’s original financial, physical, or psychological position that existed prior to the loss or injury Civil Court Vindication and recovery of financial reparations from the offenders Complex, difficult, and expensive Criminal court Guilt or innocence Right of allocution Victim impact statement Notification Restorative Justice Mediation philosophy An approach that attempts to solve problems by compromising and finding common ground rather than by using conflict tactics Empower victims Offenders held accountable Repair harm to victims and the community Applied at various stages of process National Crime Victimization Survey Bureau of Justice Statistics and Census Bureau Measures the extent to which households and individuals are victims of rape and other types of sexual assault, robbery, assault, burglary, motor vehicle theft, and larceny Crimes reported and those not reported to the police Dark figure Ethnic Minority Differences Individuals of more than one race experience higher rates of violent crime 2-3x higher than persons belonging to one race or ethnic group American Indian/ Alaska Native experienced higher rates of violence Young black males are more likely to be murdered Hispanic groups reflect greatest diversity Victimization as a Function of Age Majority of violent crime against youth is not reported 40% of urban youth have been exposed to shooting or have witnessed community violence Victim of violence vs. Witness to violence Individual reactions exist on a continuum Psychological Impact of Violence Direct victims and families Children as poly-victims Victimization as the result of multiple types of violence Fear of victimization Women and older adults Media exacerbation of fear Neighborhood safety Post traumatic Stress Disorder Acommon psychological reaction to a highly disturbing, traumatic event Recurrent, intrusive memories of the event Vividly sensory Relatively uncontrollable Extreme distress Lifetime prevalence of PTSD among American adults ranges between 7-12% Higher for women, immigrants, refugees, and veterans Victim Reactions to Crime Markesteyn (1992) Pre-victimization characteristics Post-victimization abilities to cope Factors related to the criminal event Positive social support crucial to adaptation Victims of Homicide Smallest proportion of violent crime victims Young males under 18 Young minority males living in impoverished areas of large cities Homicide rate of US juveniles is higher than other industrialized countries Homicides of young children committed primarily by family members Difficult to document Death Notification Highly stressful and intense No time to prepare psychologically Affects survivors’grief process Covictim’s needs Models Mothers Against Drunk Driving US Office for Victims of Crime National Organization for Victim Death Notifiers Range of covictmim reactions Burnout Support and education Specific details on how to deliver a notification How to manage immediate reactions of the family How to manage their own reactions General aspects of death notification Reactions of Survivors The higher the violence, the higher the survivors’distress Violent death Mourning lasts longer More intense Rage, revenge Frustration with criminal justice system Grieving Process of Survivors Search for meaning in death Find positive in the experience Complicated bereavement Length and intensity of grief Obsessive searching Lack of acceptance Suicidal ideation Survivors of violent death have longer recovery Sexual Assault Victimization According to statistics, rape and sexual assault are crimes against youth National Women’s Study National Incident-Based Reporting System 91% of the victims of rape and sexual assault are female The child molester is almost always male, but the victim may be of either gender The majority of victims do not exhibit overt physical injury NCVS data indicate most victims of rape knew their assailant Dating and intimate partner rape Sexual abuse Physical abuse Psychological abuse Spouses as perpetrators Child Sexual Abuse Negative effects Long-term effects differ significantly from individual to individual Child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome Questionable validity Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Role of forensic psychologist Evaluate the child to determine legitimacy of allegations Level of trauma Assess the competency of the child to testify Prepare the child to testify Expert witness Internet Victimization Online harassment and bullying Online sexual solicitation Child trafficking Human trafficking Sexual exploitation 300,000 children and adolescents Child prostitution Productions and distribution of child pornography Vulnerable children Victims of Property Crimes Burglary Little research Interpersonal crime Psychologically upsetting Burglar signatures Chapter 11: Family Violence and Child Victimization Chapter Objectives Review the various issues around family violence and it’s psychological consequences. Describe intimate partner violence. Describe forensic assessment of violence in the family and between intimate partners, including instruments used for that purpose. Review research on child abuse and its psychological consequences. Emphasize the strengths and limitations of human memory in reporting victimization and crime. Examine child abduction and its psychological effects. Introduce elder abuse and neglect, and review its devastating effects. Family Violence Any assault, including sexual assault, or other crime that results in the personal injury injury or death of one or more family or household member(s) by another who is or was reside in the same dwelling. Approximately 13% of all homicides involve one family members killing another family member Occurs across all ages, cultures, and socioeconomic classes Violence directed toward women Poverty Communities with few resources Socially isolated immigrant families Subcultures where there is greater acceptance of gender inequalities Intimate Partner Violence Includes violence in a relationship where the two individuals don’t live together. Male Perpetrators Power Control Serial abusers Female perpetrators Can abuse for same purposes above Self-defense (Not necessarily abuse) Retaliation Typical Development of IPV defined by Meuer et al. (2002) Stage 1: Obsessive attentive (Can look normal or abnormal) Stage 2: Domineering, controlling Many times, financial abuse occurs Stage 3: Woman adjusts Stage 4: Psychological abuse Stage 5: First incident of physical abuse Victim may view as accident Stage 6: Abuse continues, victim is blamed Stage 7: Isolation Stage 8: Blaming the victim Stage 9: Increase in threats If victim leaves and returns, the pattern can start all over again Psychological Characteristics of Batterers Battering Frequent and severe physical violence experienced in intimate relationships. Deny or minimize abuse Reaction to frustration Family violence in childhood- strongest predictor of whether a man will abuse his spouse or significant other in adulthood Mental disorder Bi-polar or mood disorder common Physical violence experienced in intimate partner relationships Includes more serious and frequent abuse Psychological abuse Batterer Typology Holzworth-Munroe and Stuart (1994) typology is based on severity, frequency, generality, and batterer dysfunction: Family only Typically not violent outside the family and engage in the least amount of severity and frequency of abuse Dysphoric/Borderline Exhibit mental disorders and are psychologically disturbed and emotionally volatile Engage in moderate to sever spousal abuse, including psychological and sexual abuse Generally violent/Antisocial More likely to use weapons and more prone to inflict severe injury on wives, partners, or other family members Battered Women Syndrome First used by psychologist Lenore Walker in 1979 Cluster of behavioral, cognitive, and emotional features Normally considered as a factor if a woman murders her husband Subcategory of PTSD Woman must experience 3 stage cycle at least twice Tension-building Acute battering incident Honeymoon/Contrition Problems with BWS Woman portrayed as helpless, passive, and impaired Lack of attention to women’s coping skills and strengths Not strongly supported by research Stark (2002) recommends that mental health practitioners emphasize the process of unique coercive control used by some batterers rather than focusing on psychological trauma in court Same Sex Intimate Partner Violence Similar patterns as opposite sex violence Victims and perpetrators Major difference between same-sex and opposite- sex IPV is: Community Response Lack of resources and services Female victims find help from friends rather than shelters, police, physicians Children Exposed to IPV 15.5 million children living in the US are exposed to IPV incidents every year Mental health needs PTSD, mood disorders, loneliness, lower self-esteem IPV as psychological abuse vs. child abuse as distinct category IPV as psychological child abuse Role of Psychologist Pre-trial assessment Evaluating victims Evaluating offenders Sentencing Expert Witness Crisis Intervention Most likely incident for cops to be injured/killed Risk assessment Safety of victim Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment Domestic Violence Risk Appraisal Guide Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Danger Assessment Conflict Tactics Scales The extent of intimate partner violence Forensic Assessment of DV Assessment of victim reactions PTSD symptoms Documentation History of domestic abuse in household? Testing PTSD Symptoms Scale; Posttraumatic Diagnostic Stress Scale; Distressing Event Questionnaire Documentation/Record Review Family assessment Safety planning Four Types of Child Maltreatment Neglect Failure to provide for child’s basic needs Physical abuse Cause physical injury Sexual abuse Sexual fondling, rape, indecent exposure, exploitation Emotional abuse Impairs child’s emotional development Child Abuse Dynamics of family violence Socially isolated Unstable interpersonal relationships Substance abuse Contribution to psychopathology Pet abuse often accompanies child abuse and/or IPV An estimated 1200 to 1500 young children are killed each year by a parent or other person, representing about 12- 15% of total homicides in the US Infanticide Nematicide (Within 24 hours of birth) Young, unmarried mothers Conceal pregnancy Filicide Older, married Symptoms of depression Prevent child’s suffering Mothers who commit infanticide Postpartum blues 50-80% of women show more minor features of postpartum blues between 1-5 days after delivery Postpartum depression Incidence rate: 7-17% of children bearing women experience Postpartum psychosis Rare: 1 out of every 1000 women following delivery Act of omission or commission Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy Medical problems falsified or induced by parent All socioeconomic levels Both sexes, children usually ages 6 months- 8 years old Prevalence unknown Shaken Baby Syndrome Causes significant brain damage resulting in intellectual disability, speech and learning disabilities, blindness, paralysis, seizures, hearing loss, and/or death 70-80% of perpetrators are male, often the parent of their child, and in their early 20s Repressed and Recovered Memories Lost memory of abuse Controversial Sigmund Freud Repression Range of cognitive processes Courts Delayed discovery Statute of limitations Civil or criminal cases Special Panels APA BPS Four Points of Memory Not every memory is stored Memories vary in strength Memories change Memories can’t be retrieved at all times Roles of Forensic Psychologist Before adjudication Neutral expert Did child abuse or neglect occur? Risk assessment? Is child in imminent danger? During adjudication What is most appropriate procedure for child’s testimony? Under what conditions is child’s hearsay admissible? Is the child competent enough to provide accurate testimony? Did abuse or neglect occur, who is responsible? Child Abduction Kidnapping Family- 49% 80% by parents Acquaintance- 27% Stranger 24% Psychological impact Traumatic for both child and left-behind parent(s) Long term more traumatic than short-term NISMART survey Elder Abuse and Neglect Defined as the physical, financial, emotional, or psychological harm of an older adult, usually define as age 65+ Adult children are the most frequent abusers of their elderly parents Neglect most common Domestic settings Women more likely than men to be involved in elder neglect Men more likely to mistreat Roles of Forensic Psychologist Determine whether or not abuse has occurred Competence Guardianship- the appointment of authority over an individual’s person or estate to another person when that individual is incapable of administering his of her own affairs Complex relationship between victim and guardian


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