Cranial Structures and Systems
Cranial Structures and Systems ANAT 3001
U of M
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by alliemartinnn Notetaker on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANAT 3001 at University of Minnesota taught by Barnett, Vincent; Cook, Mark in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Anatomy at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
Cranial Structures and Systems Ventricles ● Brain Ventricles= cavities in the brain that generate CSF ○ Lateral Ventricles ■ One in each cerebral hemisphere ■ Produce CSF ○ Third Ventricle ■ Located in diencephalons ■ Interventricular Foramen= carries fluid to the Third Ventricle ○ Fourth Ventricle ■ between pons and cerebellum ■ Mesencephalic Aqueduct= carries fluid to the Fourth Ventricle ■ Central Canal= small tube in spinal cord that receives a tiny bit of CSF after it passes through the Fourth Ventricle ■ The rest of the CSF goes to the Subarachnoid Space, then Superior Sinus Space through Arachnoid Villi ● Arachnoid Villi= one way valves that let CSF into Superior Sinus Space to enter blood stream BloodBrain Barrier ● Characteristics ○ Continuous basement membrane ○ Specialized blood vessels only let in specific molecules ○ Made up of astrocytes and capillary endothelial cells ■ Astrocyte Perivascular Feet ○ Difficult to bypass barrier to administer medicine Brain Structures ● Cerebrum ○ Major Sulci ■ Central Sulcus → b/w Frontal and Parietal lobes ■ Parieto-Occipital Sulcus → b/w Parietal and Occipital lobes ■ Lateral Fissure → above Temporal lobe ○ Major Gyri ■ Post-Central Gyrus → behind Central Sulcus (sensory function) ■ Pre-Central Gyrus → in front of Central Sulcus ○ The Hemispheres ■ Right Hemisphere ● Controls left body skeletal muscles ● Most skin sensations from left body sent here ● Artistic and creative skills ■ Left Hemisphere ● Controls right body skeletal muscles ● Most skin sensations from right body sent here ● Analytical and mathematical skills ○ Lobes of the Brain ■ Frontal ● Primary Motor Cortex= controls skeletal muscles on opposite side of body ● Broca’s Area aka Motor Speech Area= allows you to speak/write in a way that makes sense ■ Parietal ● Primary Somatosensory Cortex= receives sensation from skin on opposite side of body ● Wernicke’s Area aka Sensory Speech Area= allows you to understand what somebody else is saying/what you are reading ■ Occipital ● Primary Visual Cortex= processes visual info ■ Temporal ● Primary Auditory Cortex= processes sound info ● Primary Olfactory Cortex= processes smell info ● ● Limbic System ○ Characteristics ■ Medial surface of the brain ■ Hippocampus ■ Amygdaloid System ○ Functions ■ Integrates memories with emotional states ■ Involved in memory, motivation, emotions ● Brain Matter ○ White Matter ■ Axons travelling from one part of the CNS to another ■ 3 Types of Tracts ● Association Tracts= run from one part of the hemisphere to another part of the same hemisphere ● Commissural Tracts= connect the two hemispheres ● Projection Tracts= project outside of the brain and go further down ● The Diencephalon ○ 3 Major Parts ■ Thalamus ● Relays all somatic sensory info to Cerebral Cortex (things we are aware of) ■ Epithalamus ● Includes Pineal Gland, which secretes melatonin to regulate Circadian Rhythm ■ Hypothalamus ● Master controller of the Autonomic Nervous System (inc. endocrine system, body temp, food/water intake) ● Brain Stem ○ Mesencephalon ■ Midbrain ● Substantia Nigra= produce Dopamine (NT) ● Superior Colliculi= visually track objects ● Inferior Colliculi= track objects in response to sound ○ Metencephalon ○ Myelencephalon ○ ■ Pons ■ Medulla Oblongata