Cranial and Spinal Nerves
Cranial and Spinal Nerves ANAT 3001
U of M
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by alliemartinnn Notetaker on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANAT 3001 at University of Minnesota taught by Barnett, Vincent; Cook, Mark in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Anatomy at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
Cranial and Spinal Nerves Cranial Nerves 1. Olfactory ○ Function= smell ○ Location of Receptors= roof of nasal cavity ○ Pathway= olfactory foramina of cribriform plate 2. Ocular ○ Function= vision ○ Location of Receptors= retina of eye ○ Pathway= optic foramina 3. Oculomotor ○ Function= somatic motor of 46 eye muscles, plus levator palpebrae; autonomic control of the lens and pupil ○ Location of Receptors= ciliary ganglion ○ Pathway= superior orbital fissure 4. Trochlear ○ Function= somatic motor control of superior oblique muscle ○ Pathway= superior orbital fissure 5. Trigeminal ○ Function= sensory info from face, eye, nasal cavity, teeth, ⅔ of tongue; somatic motor control of mastication; only V3 has motor function ○ 3 Branches: ■ V1 Ophthalmic Branch ■ V2 Maxillary Branch ■ V3 Mandibular Branch ○ Pathway= V1= through superior orbital fissure; V2= through foramen rotundum; V3= through foramen ovale 6. Abducens ○ Function= somatic motor control to lateral rectus muscle ○ Pathway= through superior orbital fissure 7. Facial ○ Function= somatic motor control of facial expression; autonomic motor control of glands; special sensory nerve of tongue (⅓) ○ Location of Receptors= submandibular and pterygopalatine ganglia ○ Pathway= into internal auditory meatus and out of stylomastoid foramen 8. Vestibulocochlear ○ Function= balance and hearing ○ Location of Receptors= inner ear ○ Pathway= internal auditory meatus 9. Glossopharyngeal ○ Function= autonomic control of parotid glands; sensory info from tongue; regulates blood gases and pressure ○ Pathway= jugular foramen 10. Vagus ○ Function= somatic motor control of muscles of soft palate, pharynx, larynx; autonomic control of heart, lungs, abdominal organs ○ Pathway= jugular foramen 11. Accessory ○ Function= somatic motor control of trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles ○ Pathway= jugular foramen 12. Hypoglossal ○ Function= somatic motor control of tongue muscles ○ Pathway= hypoglossal canal The Spinal Cord ● Characteristics ○ Link between brain and body ○ Spinal nerves carry motor function and sensory stimuli ○ Continuous cord of tissue with segmental features ● Regions of the Spinal Cord ○ Cervical Region ■ 8 pairs of spinal nerves ■ Innervation to upper extremities ○ Thoracic Region ■ 12 pairs of spinal nerves ○ Lumbar Region ■ 5 pairs of spinal nerves ■ Innervation to lower extremities ○ Sacral region ■ 5 pairs of spinal nerves ■ Innervation of some of the lower extremity ○ Coccygeal Region ■ 1 pair of spinal nerves ■ Sensory info from around the anus ● Special Areas ○ Conus Medullaris= inferior end of spinal cord; between L1 and L2 ○ Filum Terminale= strand of Pia Mater at end of Conus ○ Cauda Equina= “horse’s tail”; nerve roots from inferior end of spinal cord ● Spinal Cord Meninges ○ Pia Mater= attached to surface of spinal cord ○ Arachnoid Mater= loose around spinal cord; subarachnoid space contains CSF ○ Dura Mater= thick outer layer ● A Spinal Cord Segment ○ White Matter ■ Posterior Funiculus ■ Lateral Funiculus ■ Anterior Funiculus ■ White Commissure ○ Gray Matter ■ Posterior Horn ■ Lateral Horn ■ Anterior Horn ■ Gray Commissure ● Posterior and Anterior Roots ○ Posterior roots contain central processes of sensory nerves from the body ○ Sensory neurons have cell bodies in Posterior Root Ganglia ○ Sensory neurons synapse with interneurons ○ Interneurons relay impulses to motor neurons (whose cell bodies are in the Anterior Horn of the Spinal Cord) ○ Motor neuron axons form Anterior Roots as they leave the Spinal Cord ○ A Spinal Nerve is created when the Posterior and Anterior Roots join together ● Posterior and Anterior Rami ○ ???????????????????????????????????????????? ○ ???????????????????????????????????????????? Nerves of the Upper Extremities ● Axillary Nerve ○ Innervation= Deltoid, Teres Minor, Triceps Brachii (long head) ○ Action=abduct arm at shoulder ○ Skin Connection= lower deltoid ● Musculocutaneous Nerve ○ Innervation= Biceps Brachii, Brachialis, Coracobrachialis ○ Action= flex upper arm at shoulder and elbow ○ Skin Connection= lateral aspect of forearm ● Radial Nerve ○ Innervation= Triceps Brachii, Anconeus, Extrinsic Extensors of hands and wrist ○ Action= Extend arm at elbow, extend wrist and fingers, supination of forearm ○ Skin Connection= Posterior side of forearm, palm, fingers ● Median Nerve ○ Innervation= Flexor Pollicis Longus, Pronator Quadratus ○ Action= Flex arm ○ Skin Connection= Palm, fingers ● Ulnar Nerve ○ Innervation= Flexor Carpi Ulnaris, muscles of the hand, Flexor Digitorum Profundus ○ Action= Flex hand ○ Skin Connection= Fingers and palm