Intro to Crim Justice Ch 11 Notes & Vocab
Intro to Crim Justice Ch 11 Notes & Vocab CCJ 2020
Popular in Introduction to Criminal Justice
Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ryan Desjardins on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ 2020 at Florida State University taught by Elizabeth Borkowski in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 96 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Criminal Justice in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Florida State University.
Reviews for Intro to Crim Justice Ch 11 Notes & Vocab
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 03/28/16
Ch 11 Corrections Vocab & Notes Vocab 1. Prison- A state or federal correctional institution for incarceration of felony offenders for terms of one year or more. 2. Jail-A place to detain people awaiting trial, to serve as a lockup for drunks and disorderly individuals, and to confine convicted misdemeanants serving sentences of less than one year. 3. Hulks-Abandoned ships anchored in harbors and used in 18 century England to house prisoners. th 4. Walnut Street Jail- An 18 century institution that housed convicted criminals in Philadelphia. 5. Penitentiary House- Term used for early prisons, so named because inmates were supposed to do penitence for their sins. 6. Congregate System- Prison system first used in New York that allowed inmates to engage in group activities such as work, meals, and recreation. 7. Pennsylvania System- The correctional model used in Pennsylvania that isolated inmates from one another prevent them from planning escapes, to make them easy to manage, and to give them time to experience penitence. 8. Contract System- The practice of correctional officials selling the labor of inmates to private businesses. 9. Convict-Lease System- The practice of leasing inmates to a business for a fixed annual fee. 10. Medical Model- A correctional philosophy grounded on the belief that inmates are sick people who need treatment rather than punishment to help them reform. 11. Penal Harm- A philosophy based on the belief that harsh treatment while serving a correctional sentence will convince offenders that crime does not pay, thereby lowering the chances of recidivism. 12. Maximum-Security Prison- A correctional institution that houses dangerous felons and maintains strict security measures, high walls, and limited contact with the outside world. 13. Super-Maximum-Security Prison- The newest form of a maximum security prison that uses high level security measures to incapacitate the nation's most dangerous criminals. Most inmates are in lockdown 23 hours a day. 14. Medium-Security Prison- A less secure institution that houses nonviolent offenders and provides more opportunities for contact with the outside world. 15. Minimum-Security Prison- The least secure institution, which houses white collar and nonviolent offenders, maintains few security measures, and has liberal furlough and visitation policies. 16. Boot Camp- A short term militaristic correctional facility in which inmates undergo intensive physical conditioning and discipline. 17. Halfway House- A community based correctional facility that houses inmates before their outright release so they can become gradually acclimated to conventional society. PowerPoint Notes Jail vs. Prison Jail is for misdemeanor offenses punishable by less than one year Prison is for felony offenses punishable by more than a year History of US Corrections First American prisons: Built in Pennsylvania under leadership of William Penn 1773: Newgate Prison was established 1785: Castle Island was established Historical Development of Prisons 1. The Pennsylvania System a. 1790 b. A form of imprisonment developed by the Pennsylvania Quakers as an alternative to corporal punishments. c. Focused on repentance through solitary confinement and encouraged rehabilitation. d. Emphasized rehabilitation through penance and the study of the bible was strongly encouraged of the inmates. 2. The Auburn System a. 1819 b. A form of imprisonment developed in New York State that depended on mass prisons, where prisoners were held in congregate fashion and required to remain silent. c. Emphasized labor and meditation. d. Inmates would attend group workshops and they reintroduced corporal punishments when handling offenders. 3. The Reformatory Movement a. 1877 b. Based on the use of the indeterminate sentence and a belief in the possibility of rehabilitation, especially for youthful offenders. c. Focused on education to reform inmates. i. Norfolk Island: an Australian prison when Maconochie was the warden. He greatly improved the conditions of the prison and created a system of marks which inmates could earn credits to buy their freedom based on their behavior. ii. The Irish System: Crofton incorporated the idea of early release from Norfolk Island and used it in the Irish system. His system was based on progressive stages which ended with the prisoners being allowed to live and work in the community and being supervised occasionally. He believed rehabilitation could not occur without reintegration into the community. 4. Industrial Era a. 1890–1935 b. Most prisons were smelting steel, manufactured cabinets, molded tires, and turned out many other goods for the open market. c. The goal was to maximize use of the offender’s labor during imprisonment. ***There were six systems of inmate labor used during this period... 1. Contract System 2. Piece-price System 3. Lease System 4. Public-Account System 5. State-use System 6. Public-works System Jails Jails serve 9 purposes... 1. They receive individuals pending arraignment and hold them awaiting trial, conviction, or sentencing. 2. They readmit probation, parole, and bail-bond violators and absconders. 3. They temporarily detain juveniles, mentally-ill, and others pending transfers to appropriate facilities. 4. They hold individuals for the military, protective custody, for contempt, and for the courts as witnesses. 5. They release convicted inmates to the community upon completion of their sentence. 6. They transfer inmates to federal, state, or other authorities. 7. They house inmates for federal, state, or other authorities because of overcrowding. 8. They operate community-based programs with day reporting, home detention, electronic monitoring, or other types of supervision. 9. They hold inmates sentenced to short terms. Jail Population Statistics • Population peaked in 2009 • Today, there are roughly 750,000 jail inmates nationwide • Primarily adult males, mostly white, but disproportionately minority, poor, and young Los Angeles County Jail Is the Largest Jail in the U.S. New York City Jail Is Second Largest These two jails house 5.33% of all jail inmates Women and Jail Jailed women face a number of special problems... Only 25.7% of nation’s jails report having a system specifically designed to evaluate female inmates. Not all jurisdictions provide separate housing areas for women. Fewer than half are high school graduates More than 30% have a substance abuse problem at the time of admission In some parts of the country that figure may be as high as 70% 4% are pregnant when they enter jail, but 10% are reported to be pregnant on any given day. New Generation Jails Built in clusters or pods which allow officers to view inmates easily from stationary positions Previously, linear design jails that require correctional officers to patrol the hallways to supervise inmates These allow for continuous supervision: o Direct Supervision- contains a cluster of cells surrounding a living area or 'pod', which has tables, chairs, TV's, etc. A correctional officer is stationed within the pod and can observe the inmates continuously and relate to them on a more personal level. Placing an officer here increases awareness of the behaviors and needs of the inmates, making it a safer environment for both staff and inmates. o Indirect Supervision- Similar in construction, but the correctional officers station is located inside a secure room. Microphones and speakers placed inside the pod and the officers station allows the officer to hear and communicate with inmates. Prisons Organized into 3 levels... 1. Maximum security 2. Medium security 3. Minimum security Prison Characteristics