Intro to Women's and Gender Studies, Week 11 Notes
Intro to Women's and Gender Studies, Week 11 Notes WGST 1101 - 001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Sanacore on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to WGST 1101 - 001 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Kelly Anne Finley in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Intro to Women's Studies in Women and Gender studies at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
WGST 1101 – Lecture – March 23 “If Americans could only have one child, they would prefer that it be a boy rather than a girl, by 40% to 28% margin, with the rest having no preference or no opinion on the matter. These attitudes are remarkably similar to what Gallup measured in 1941, when Americans preferred a boy to a girl by a 38% to 24% margin.” (Gallup Poll, June, 2011) Gender Preference and Global Consequence More girls than boys die in infancy and early childhood globally Top reasons include: female infanticide abandoning girls selling girls (servitude and/or prostitution) giving girls less food (particularly protein) One explanation for gender preference = systematic correlation between female infanticide, chronic warfare, and male supremacist cultural values (Divale and Harris) Cultural Representation: The Culture of “Femininity” culture behaviors and attitudes learned from communities languages (literal and figurative) and religious practices complex social organizations = families, friendships, professions, etc. cultural representation cultural ideas are communicated and absorbed through a variety of media from birth and now increasing exposure with constant media no image is free from assumptions and messages about gender (or other identities) cultural norms reinforced by cultural representations set of social rules that all are expected to follow enforce them in others and ourselves defines an activity and erases the possibility of other definitions children first imitate “gender” children internalize parental messages regarding gender at an early age, with awareness of adult sex role differences being found in two-year-old children children even deny the reality of what they are seeing when it doesn’t conform to their gender expectations (i.e., a child whose mother is a doctor stating that only men are doctors) becoming “girl” gender role acquisition young children (less than 5_ “try on” genders and ignore many cultural norms by age 5—aware of cultural representations and norms—children classify themselves into a gender and believe that gender does not change conform to gender roles and police behavior of other children (even without adult reinforcement) cultural representation of gender roles looking at toys toys become work and careers o toys created and market for girls reflect childcare, home care, or cleaning o toys for boys reflect athletics, professions, or competition (often violent) gender norms in household chores girls over 5 years old not only spend more time doing housework, they begin earlier than boys girls are usually asked to do a wider range of chores (laundry, cleaning, cooking, etc.) gender difference in chores become grater with age (14 to 17 years old) boys are more likely to be paid for chores older girls are more likely to be tasked with household chores in two income households (both parents are working) o creates the “daughter track” and “mommy track” gender display and androgyny more than two genders other cultures-past and present-have more than two genders India, Nepal, Afghanistan, Balkans/Albania, Native American tribes (“two spirit”) Joan of Arc (now recognized Saint by Catholic church) led army to victory while dressed like male soldiers Australia, New Zealand, Germany, Pakistan, Thailand – modern nations recognize “third” or “other” gender binary gender system western culture imposes a binary gender system two sex (male/female) two gender (woman/man) gender binary is not egalitarian (equal value, complimentary roles, shared power, etc.) American Indians (Iroquois and Cherokee), Indonesian islands (Bali), Thailand, Cambodia, Nepal, India = before colonization binary where one gender is dominant, the other as subordinate men are the main power/character/subject, while women are the supporting/secondary/object gender trouble gender performance theory (post-modern philosophy) reveals that by enforcing a gender binary, one gender will attempt to have power over the other and controlling freedom shows how gender precedes sex and sexuality two genders resulting in a patriarchy is not inevitable to have freedom, trouble and disrupt the gender binary. Society should eradicate the binary for many reasons, cultures trouble the binary detour into “tomboyism” “temporary detour on the road to female development, a last adventure before the final commitment to womanhood” noisy, competitive, outdoorsy high on energy use bodies and voice freely to explore world of people and things tomboy gender performance majority of female college students describe themselves as former tomboys o more than half of adult women surveyed recalled having been tomboys…it becomes the rule, not the exception among growing girls, nearly 3 out of 4 currently place themselves in the tomboy category among Western cultures, it has no counterpart among males by their late teens, few girls continue to wear the title “succumb to cultural norms of womanhood” 1. Cinderella ate my daughter 2. decline in academic performance 3. sexual desirability as primary self 4. move in the “eye of culture” 5. ritual subordination 6. license withdrawal/loss of voice “Cinderella ate my daughter” males outnumber females 3 to 1 in family films females are 4x as likely as males to be shown in sexy attire. Further, females are 2x s likely as males to be shown with a diminutive waistline From 2006 to 2009, not one female character was depicted in G-rated family films in the field of medical science, as a business leader, in the law, or politics Females are also underrepresented behind the camera. Across 1,565 content creators, only 7% of directors, 13% of writer, and 20% of producers are female. This translates to 4.8 males working behind-the-scenes to every one female “succumb to womanhood” AAUW study revealed that girls’ self-esteem plummets as they reach adolescence, with a concurrent drop in academic achievement–especially in math and science
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