3/22 and 3/24 class notes
3/22 and 3/24 class notes CDAE 002
Popular in World Food, Population and Development
Popular in Human Development
This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by HD on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDAE 002 at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Shoshanah Inwood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see World Food, Population and Development in Human Development at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
3/22/16 Peasant Protest, Rebellion and Resistance Indigenous response to colonial rule Characteristics of Indigenous people o mobile o Communal ownership of valuable resources o Kinship-based social structure o Egalitarian o Control resources or land desired by members of the capitalist nation-state What is a peasant? o A member of the class constituted by small farmers and tenants, sharecroppers, and laborers on the land where they form the main labor force in agriculture Land tenure o The relationship whether legally or customarily defined, among people, individuals or groups with respect ro land o Defines who gets access to Use rights Control rights Transfer rights o Part of social, technical, economic, institutional, legal and political structures o Land tenure relationships may be formal or informal Private Communal Open access State Peasant societies o General production systems Rent funds (landlords) Replacement funds (seeds for next year’s crops) Ceremonial funds (social cohesion) Production for self/gardens/livestock o Land based system Production depends on amount and quality of land for production Peasant protests struggles for land Challenges to peasant/smallholder agriculture o Economic and social changes o Land fragmentation o Reduced investment and support for smallholder agriculture Weapons of the weak o Peasant folklore Robin Hood o Avoid open confrontation Gossip Don’t come to work Threaten to work for others Resisting Colonial Rule (Kenya) o Footprint of imperial boot Plantation agriculture Primary product exports o Kikuyu and Mau Mau Rebellion British struggled to repress rebellion by Kikuyu peasant farmers Rebels/Mau Mau killed those loyal to the British o Social Organization Council of the elders o The Happy Valley Settlers Partied a lot Drank o White Highlands System of taxation and land removal Kikuyu used to own land but then they turned into squatters working to live on their own land Squatters sold their surplus Hours of squatter work rose Taxation on the money they did make Reduced Kikuyu land and livestock ownership Kipande ID tag that had o Age o Ethnicity o Work o Etc. Had to wear it at all times Any white person could write whatever they wanted on it o Kikuyu reserves and mission schools Reserves overpopulated Overplanted Extreme soil erosion Widespread hunger Migration to cities Mission schools Dress Language Culture Values o Resistance from individual collective Individual Strikes Not going to work Killing settler’s livestock Collective Kikuyu Oath Kenyan African Union (KAO) o Mau Mau: The Land and the Freedom Movement Rational Organized British became paranoid about the oath They round up suspects Detention camps Forced labor camps To try and destroy the oath Starvation Murder Rape Mutilation Few taken to court o If you were you were assumed guilty Kenyan independence Dec 12, 1963 Torture, Murder, Cover Up? Long Arc of Justice Demands for reparations Reparations o Compensation for past wrongs o Who gets compensated? Those directly harmed? Descendants? Direct or systematic? o Cash, grants, credit International aid Small scale lending Grameen Bank USAID o Acknowledgment o Institutional change o Trade agreements o Changing colonial names o Choice of clothing Nelson Mandela o Cultural history Tourism of memory o Reparations Think about connections to justice, healing and closure Development Paradigms Improvement varies Capitalism o Individuals freely acting out of rational self-interest o Maximize pleasure o Minimize pain Free Market o Prices reflect scarcity and value o Restricted government role o Secure property rights o System of $ and credit o Enforce contracts o Facilitate international trade Government Intervention o Keynesian o Problems with Free Market Instability (Great Depression) Exploitive Can’t price accurately (externalities) System leads to monopoly o Need for enlightened government regulation o President Roosevelt o Bretton Woods and the World Debt New Hampshire meeting Work Progress Administration World Bank International Bank for Reconstruction and development To make loans for projects International Monetary Fund (IMF) Make funds for countries to meet short term needs and stabilize currency exchange Global Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 1995 ensure free trade of commodities among countries World Trade Organization (WTO) Rules on claims of unfair trading policies by member nations Development and Modernization Theory o Rostow’s Model Stages of Economic Development Traditional society Transitional Stage Take off Drive to maturity High mass consumption Large scale infrastructure development projects o Hydroelectricity o Roads Dependency Theory o 70’s and 80’s o 3 world underdevelopment is the result of 1 worldt overdevelopment o Roots lie in colonial history Core/Periphery countries o Structural disadvantages o Means of production o Economic sector Wallerstein’s World Systems Theory Debt crisis o Changing the meaning of money o 1971 US devalues dollar from gold No printing limits o Loans to peripheral countries to industrialize Loans adjustable to go up or down Bigger the project the more the bank can lend Borrowers pay more on loan repayments than they make off of the loan Neoliberalism in the 1990’s/today o “liberal” in sense of no controls o “Neo” new Post Keynesian sense o Magic of the markets o Main elements Rule of the market Cutting public expenditure for social services Deregulation Privatization Replacing “public good” with “individual responsibility” Jamaica o *Video* Life and Debt The Free Zones Separate entity from Jamaica 3/24/16 International Community Development Why International Community Development? o Hunger o Poverty o Diseases o World statistics High mortality rate in children Discrimination towards women o Community Development story in Honduras *video* World Vision Family farming o Grow lettuce for Walmart due to the help from World Vision Donated chickens for another family A woman started a savings club What does International Development mean? o Beyond the border o Community owned and managed o Work for community well being o Mobilization of local resources o Focus to women, children, margined population o Technical and financial cooperation What’s the purpose? o Improve quality of life Especially the poorest of the poor o Initiate sustainable development o Improve Human Development Index (HDI) and put people back at the center (UNDP) HDI based on: Life expectancy Adult literacy Enrollment in schools GDP per capita Goals of International Community Development? o Make sure you link your paper to these goals!! o Eradicate poverty and hunger o Gender equality o Universal primary education o Reduce child mortality o Improve maternal health o Combat HIV/AIDS o Maintain environmental sustainability o Develop global partnership for development Followed by millennium development goals ICD story in Nepal o *video* International Nepal Fellowship Widow shunned by community Went to India but had to move back Joined International Nepal Fellowship and got a buffalo to sell its milk Now has enough money to support her daughter’s dream to become a nurse She is part of an INF support group Approaches of International Development o Top down *Graphic*: Middle layers take things along the way down so there’s little when it reaches the bottom Budget based planning Macro perspective Expert and consultant based Lack of transparency Possibility of corruption Ignorance of community needs and resources May create dependency and lack of community support Suitable for forming policies and procedures Ex: No Child Left Behind Equitable distribution of resources, states, county, district, etc. o Bottom up Better targeted to community needs Find micro solutions More innovative ideas Community ownership May lead to sustainability Transparency and flexibility in implementation People employment Women Minorities Mobilization of local resources Main focus areas of ICD o Infrastructure support Health care Transportation School Market o Continued on slide…
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