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LIFE 103 (Tanya Dewey) Week 9 Notes

by: Lauren Caldwell

LIFE 103 (Tanya Dewey) Week 9 Notes LIFE 103

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Biology > LIFE 103 > LIFE 103 Tanya Dewey Week 9 Notes
Lauren Caldwell
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

Covering animal diversity and invertebrates
Macrobiology; Plants and Animals
Erik Arthun, Tanya Dewey
Class Notes
life 103, Tanya Dewey
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Caldwell on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LIFE 103 at Colorado State University taught by Erik Arthun, Tanya Dewey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Macrobiology; Plants and Animals in Biology at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 03/28/16
3/21 Animal Diversity and Evolution Tanya Dewey - Monday (2-4pm) or Wednesday (1-2pm) Office AZ E400 Themes to know: 1. Organization Structure and function, emergent properties, reductionism 1 Information Information is transferred between generations through genes by heredity 1 Energy and matter All organisms require both, resources are limited, and trade-offs are often there 1 Interactions Impacts all levels of organization 1 Evolution Be sure to study trends in evolution, tradeoffs and constraints, and different perspectives and ways of life  Parsimony o Simplest explanation for questions  Eukaryan diversity includes protists, plants, fungi, and animals  Clade - monophyletic group o Same thing; its an interchangeable term  Taxon - any evolutionary entity - species, genus, phylum, animals etc o A group of any term in any way  Animals = metazoans o [zoo/zoa] = animals -> thus, zoology o 86% of species on land have yet to be discovered o 91% of marine species have yet to be discovered o An estimated 7.8 million total species, but we have less than 1 million named o 70% of animals are insects o Identifiable fossils of animals emerged in the edicaran era  The Cambrian explosion, on the other hand, was when animal phyla literally exploded in diversity  "The Cambrian Explosion" o Definable traits of animals  Ingestive heterotrophs  Physically consumes by ingesting others for energy and matter  Multicellular  Mobile - locomotion  Lacks cell walls  Extracellular matrix  Specialized cells - NERVES and MUSCLES  Sexual reproduction  (2n) dominant  Flagellated sperm, non motile egg  Most (this refers to the large number of insects on the planet and other things) have a larval stage  Cells organized into tissues  Conserved genes control development  Hox genes  Zygote undergoes cleavage, forms the blastula, and gastrulation  Eumetazoa o "True Tissues" o Everything, really, in the metazoa group expect for sponges Themes of evolution  Origin of multicellularity o All are multicellular o Came from Choanoflagellates  Unicellular sister group to animals  Single celled, but often lives in colonies  Sponge choanocytes - feeding cells - are incredibly similar to individual choanoflagellates, thus suggesting the evolution from this group  Bilateral symmetry, cephalization, and the nervous system o Aka, the development of the head, the symmetry of the body  Sponges have no symmetry - there's no organizing plan to determine the shape  Radial symmetry - coral, aneonomies, etc  Around a central axis  Bilateral - bugs, humans, dogs, cats, etc  The origin comes from Bilateria  This group, on the tree she uses, comes right after Eumetazoa  Can cut organism in half along the middle and shazam, it will be identical  Bilateral symmetry allows for cephalization (a head to develop)  Concentration of sensory apperatuses in the head o Nervous system along the body  Critical for being a developmentally good eater  Origin of embryonic tissue layers A Diploblasti Triploblasti c c Ectoderm Yes Yes Endoderm Yes Yes Mesoderm No Yes Digestive Yes Yes cavity Most are triploblastic  Origin of the coelom o Animals are tubes within tubes  Coelom - fluid-filled cavity between tubes  The separation of muscle and the gut (a space in between) allows for flexibility, thus movement o Three types:  Acoelomate  "No" coelom  Coelomate  Has the fluid-filled cavity, plus the (usually) three tissue layers  The pocket - the fluid-filled cavity - is in the mesoderm  Pseudocoelomate  There IS a fluid filled cavity, BUT the coelom is NOT in the mesoderm  Is between the mesoderm and the endoderm  These body plans evolved independenty, since they don’t all group together on a tree Acoelomate pseudocoelomate Coelomate 3/25 Phylums  Diploblastic o Not coelomate  Triploblastic o Coelomate animals  Origin of protostome and deuterostome development o Stoma = opening, or mouth  Coelom development (the mesoderm, blastopore, coelom, etc) develops differently between the two types  Protostome  Mouth first (develops from the blastopore)  The first 8 cells that come from the embryo (RIGHT after fertilization) are all already specialized  Ex: flat worms, snails, mollusks  Also known as "Spiralia"  Deuterostome  Mouth second (develops from the blastopore)  The first 8 cells that come from the embryo (RIGHT after fertilization) are NOT specialized [indeterminate]  Ex: star fish, chordata  Origin of segmentation o Spine, different segments (cephalotorax) o Controlled by the same genes  HOX genes o Gene duplication  Required or uber important for segmentation  Results int eh same copy of genes on the same arm of a chromosome  The extra material can be 'released' and can be a part of natural selection to create new elements for life  Ex: similiar functions and specializations can arise from these Invertebrates Phylum Habitat Diversity / other Motility Diet info Marine, Sessile v Filter feeding v freshwater, motile predatory terrestrial Porifera Mostly marine No symmetry Sessile Filter feeding sponges (adults) Ctenophora marine Not very diverse motile Predatory Cnidaria Mostly marine Lots both Both Jellies, corals, anemones Placozoa marine little Motile Eats decaying things Flat animals (cilia) Acoela marine diploblastic Motile Predatory Acoel (cilia) flatworms Rotifera Freshwater bilateral motile Filter feeding Wheel animals mostly Acanthocelpha frehswhater bilateral motile Parasitic la Spiny headed worms cycliophora marine FEW species (1- motile Parasitic or 2) commensal, we don’t Found on lobster know yet if good/bad mouths Gastrotricha Marine and detritivores motile hairybacks freshwater gnathostomuli marine motile da Platyhelminthe Most habitats Lots everywhere motile Predators or parasites s flatworms Entoprocta marine Lives in colonies sessile Filter feeding "anus inside" mollusca all Huge, one of the Motile All feeding types biggest things and out there sessile Sipunculida marine sessile Filter feeding Peanut worms Brachiopoda marine sessile Filter feeding Lamp shells Phoronida same same Same Horseshow worms ectoprocat Nemertea Mostly marine, motile Predatory/parasitic Ribbon worms some freshwater and terrestrial Annelida All Motile Predatory, filter Segmented and feeding, detritivores, worms sessile sanguivores Priapulida Marine motile Detritivore Penus worms Kinohyncha Marine 180 species Motile Detritivore and Mud dragons predatory Loricifera Marine Can live in the Sessile Feeding unkonwn extremes like archea Nematopmorp Moist or motile Paracitic ha freshwater areas Horse hair worms Nematoda All Lots Halfparasitic, half free- Roudnmworms living Chaetognatha Marine Planktonic Motile Predatory Arrow worms Tardigrada Moist habitats Can survive Motile Predatory Water bears extreme environments Onychophora Terrestrial Motile Predatory Velvet worms Arthropoda All Motile All feeding methods Arthropods  Sessile - usually filter feeders  Most in marine  Massive diversity for those that are terrestrial


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