Social Psychology Key Terms
Social Psychology Key Terms PSYCH 221
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by AmberNicole on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 221 at East Carolina University taught by Thornton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Intro to Social Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
Social Psychology: Affiliation and Friendship Key Points (Ch 7) Friend Someone on terms of affection and regard for another who is neither relative nor lover Reinforcement-affect model The theory that we like people with whom we associate positive feelings and dislike those with whom we associate negative feelings Domain-general model A model that attempts to explain a wide range of different behaviors according to a simple general rule (such as: do it if it’s rewarding) Social exchange The trading of benefits within relationships Equity A state of affairs in which one person’s benefits and costs from a relationship are proportional to the benefits and costs incurred by his or her partner Domain-specific model A model that presumes that the governing principles vary from one domain of behavior to another (such as friendship vs. romance vs. parent-child relationships) Social support Emotional, material, or informational assistance provided by other people Health Psychology The study of behavioral and psychological factors that affect illness Self-disclosure The sharing of intimate information about oneself Communal sharing A form of exchange in which members of a group share a pool of resources, taking when they are in need and giving when others are in need Authority ranking A form of exchange in which goods are divided according to a person’s status in the group Equity matching A form of exchange in which each person gets the same as the others Market Pricing A form of exchange in which everyone gets out in proportion to what they put in Proximity-attraction principle The tendency to become friends with those who live or work nearby Mere exposure effect The tendency to feel positively toward people, places, or things we have seen frequently Social capital Assets that can be drawn from one’s network of personal relationships Prosocial Behavior Key Points (Ch 9) Prosocial behavior Action intended to benefit another Pure (or true) altruism Action intended solely to benefit another Inclusive fitness The survival of one’s genes in one’s own offspring and in any relatives one helps Reciprocal aid Helping that occurs in return for prior help Social responsibility norm The societal rule that people should help those who need them to help Bystander effect The tendency of a bystander to be less likely to help in an emergency if there are other onlookers present Diffusion of responsibility The tendency for each group member to dilute personal responsibility for acting by spreading it among all other group members Pluralistic ignorance The mistaken impression on the part of group members that, because no one else is acting concerned, there is no cause for alarm Personal norms The internalized beliefs and values that combine to form a person’s inner standards for behavior Arousal/cost-reward model The view that observers of a victim’s suffering will want to help to relieve their own personal distress Mood management hypothesis The idea that people use helping tactically to manage their moods Perspective taking The process of mentally putting oneself in another’s position Empathy-altruism hypothesis The presumption that when one empathizes with the plight of another, one will want to help that other for purely altruistic reasons Empathic Concern Compassionate feelings caused by taking the perspective of a needy other Love and Romantic Relationships Key Points (Ch 8) Passion Factor on love scales composed of items tapping romantic attraction and sexual desire Intimacy Factor on love scales composed of items tapping feelings of close bonding with another Decision/commitment Factor on love scales composed of items tapping decision that one is in love with and committed to another Factor analysis A statistical technique for sorting test items or behaviors into conceptually similar groupings Companionate love Affection and tenderness felt for those whose lives are entwined with our own Passionate love A state of intense longing for union with another Nurturant love Feelings of tenderness and concern, central to parents caring for their children Attachment love Desire to be cared for, and protected by, another person Sociosexual orientation Individual differences in the tendency to prefer either unrestricted sex (without the necessity of love) or restricted sex (only in the context of a long-term, loving relationship) Two-factor theory of love The theory that love consists of general arousal (factor 1), which is attributed to the presence of an attractive person and labeled as love (factor 2) Need to belong The human need to form and maintain strong, stable interpersonal relationships Secure base Comfort provided by an attachment figure, which allows the person to venture forth more confidently to explore the environment Secure attachment style Attachments marked by trust that the other person will continue to provide love and support Anxious/ambivalent attachment style Attachments marked by fear of abandonment and the feeling that one’s needs are not being met Avoidant attachment style Attachments marked by defensive detachment from the other Erotomania A disorder involving the fixed (but incorrect) belief that one is love by another, which persists in the face of strong evidence to the contrary Monogamy Marital custom in which one man marries one woman Polygamy Marital custom in which either one man marries more than one woman (polygyny) or one woman marries more than one man (polyandry) Polyandry Marital arrangement involving one woman and more than one husband Polygyny Marital arrangement involving one man and more than one wife Equity rule Each person’s benefits and costs in a social relationship should be matched to the benefits and costs of the other Need-based rule Each person in a social relationship provides benefits as the other needs them, without keeping account of individual costs and benefits Androgynous Demonstrating a combination of masculine and feminine characteristics in one’s behaviors