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Biology Lecture 16 - Exam 4

by: Devin Mart

Biology Lecture 16 - Exam 4 BIO 121 A

Marketplace > Missouri State University > Biology > BIO 121 A > Biology Lecture 16 Exam 4
Devin Mart
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The Cell Cycle
General Biology
Dr. Durham
Class Notes
Biology 120 - General Biology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Devin Mart on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 121 A at Missouri State University taught by Dr. Durham in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Missouri State University.


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Date Created: 03/28/16
  Mart 1  Lecture 16: The Cell Cycle    ● Cell division functions in reproduction, growth, and repair.  ○ The ability to reproduce distinguishes living things from nonliving.  ○ The continuity of life is based on cell division.  ■ Division of unicellular organisms reproduces an entire organism, while it  produces progeny for multicellular organisms.  ■ This is used to repair and renew cells that die.  ■ Requires the distribution of identical genetic material, DNA, from  generation to generation.  ○ Genome ​ is a cell’s genetic information, packaged as DNA.  ■ In prokaryotes, often a single long DNA molecules, while in eukaryotes, it  consists of several DNA molecules.  ○ DNA molecules are packaged into ​hromosomes.​  ■ Every eukaryotic organism has a characteristic  number of chromosomes,  humans have 46 chromosomes.  ○ Each duplicated chromosomes:  ■ Consists of twosister chromatid, contain identical copies of  chromosome’s DNA.  ● Mitosis ​is a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same  number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus.  ○ Cytokinesis​ is the cytoplasmic division of a cell, bringing about the separation  into two daughter cells.  ○ Interphase has three subphases:  ■ G₁  (“first gap”) is centered around growth, the increase in size.  ■ S phase​ (“synthesis”) the chromosomes are copied.  ■ G₂  (“second gap”) completes the preparations for cell division, the  duplication of the centrosomes*.  ■ M phase ​divides the cell, restarting the process.  ○ Mitosis has five subphases:  ■ Prophase​, the DNA becomes condensed into chromosomes and the  centrosomes migrate to opposite sides of the cell.  ■ Prometaphase​ , the nuclear envelope if fragmented and the microtubules  begin to align to two spindle poles.  ■ Metaphase​ , the chromosomes line up.  ■ Anaphase​ , the sister chromatids are pulled apart.  ■ Telophase​, the nuclear envelope is reformed and cytokinesis takes place  (division of the cells).    Mart 2  ○ Mitotic spindle is a structure composed of microtubules which segregates  chromosomes into the daughter cells during mitosis.  ■ The assembly of spindle microtubules starts in thcentrosome​.  ■ Spindle microtubules attach tokinetochores of sister chromatids.  ■ Spindle fibers shorten during anaphase from end attached to the  chromosomes.  ● Cytokinesis​ is the division of the cytoplasm, typically follows mitosis.  ○ Contraction of actin­myosin ring pinches the cell in two.  ○ In plant cells, during telophase, vesicles forcell plat.  ○ A molecular control system drives the cell cycle through the use of specific  chemical signals in the cytoplasm.  ■ Checkpoints ​are critical control points where stop and go signals regulate  the cell cycle, the most importantG₁s.  ■ The ​G₀  are nondividing, they can later reenter the cell cycle.  ○ Kinases ​are proteins that catalyse the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to a  specified molecule, present in a constant amount.  ○ Cyclin​ are any of a number of proteins associated with the cycle of cell division  that are thought to initiate certain processes of mitosis, proteins fluctuate  cyclically.  ○ MPF (mix of kinase and cyclin) triggers the cell’s passage past the checkpoint,  this promotes mitosis by:  ■ Phosphorylating other kinases.  ■ Stimulating the breakdown of the nuclear envelope.  ■ The breakdown of cyclin.  ○ Growth factors ​are a substance, such as a vitamin or hormone, that is required for  the stimulation of growth in living cells.  ■ This triggers a signal­transduction pathway which leads to cell division.  ■ Growth factors are a key indensity­dependent inhibitio of cell division  ■ Most animal cells exhibit anchorage dependence ​for cell division.  ● Cancer cells have escaped from cell cycle controls.  ○ Transformation ​is the process of a normal cell converting to a cancer cell.  ○ If not, a cell proliferates to fortumor, a mass of abnormal cells.  ■ If the abnormal cells remain at the originating site ibenign tumor​.  ■ A ​malignant tumor​ occurs when the abnormal cells leave the original site.  ○ Metastasis ​is when cancer cells lose attachment to nearby cells, carried by blood  and lymph system to other tissues, and start more tumors  ■ Cellular transformation always involves the alteration of genes that  influence the cell cycle control system.      Mart 3     


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