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Political Party Class Notes

by: Savannah Tucker

Political Party Class Notes PS 101

Marketplace > University of Kentucky > Political Science > PS 101 > Political Party Class Notes
Savannah Tucker

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Class notes covering Political Parties 3/28 - 3/30.
American Government
Stephen Voss
Class Notes
Voss, American Government, political science, PS101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Tucker on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PS 101 at University of Kentucky taught by Stephen Voss in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see American Government in Political Science at University of Kentucky.


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Date Created: 03/28/16
Monday, March 28, 2016 Political Parties Warnings against Political parties: James Madison’s factions George Washington “warn you in the most solemn manner against the baneful effects of the Spirit of the Party, generally.” Yet two major parties lost constantly since Constitution And periodic rise of strong third parties Not because americans like them CBS (8 July 2015): states that americans hold negative opinion sou both parties. Since 2004, almost 2/3 americans wanted a 3rd party. Three levels of american political party organizations National Party: Chair, headquarters, committees, conventions. State Parties: Chair headquarters, committees, conventions Local: Parties are not a Single Organizations Types of Political Party in fractured U.S. Context 1. Party organization (national state, local) 2. Party-in- government (especially in congress) 3. Party-in-the-electorate (including party ID) 1 Monday, March 28, 2016 Balance of Power Has Changed Over Time Party organization used to be strong. Policies undermined their organizational strength. Electoral side thus became much more important. Party-in-Government used to be weak until recently. Nature of Parties has Changed Federalist vs. Jeffersonian Madisonian Democratic Republicans Mainly party in government. Court Parties: behind the throne. Did not reach down to the masses. Democratic Party (build by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Beuran) Develops party in electorate. Mass Parties Whig Party soon counters Policy Changes Undermines Parties At the end of the 1800’s we see that Americans are beginning to realize how powerful the parties are. Progressive Era: moderates wanting to weaken the system Civil Service (Pendleton) hurts patronage (giving out government jobs). This has changed, we no longer have as much riding on voting. Pendleton Act: Creates Civil Service, protecting government jobs after each elections. Also took away these “gifts” therefore lessening the amount of people who voted. Secret Service (Australian) Ballot prevents bullying 2 Monday, March 28, 2016 Prevents the parties from bullying and bribing voters. Nobody knows how you voted. Party Primaries takes over power from party leaders Established widely in Progressive era Get teeth in the late 1960’s. State Constitutions offer direct democracy. Breaking urban machines (and populists): Restrictions on immigration, Literacy tests, Poll taxes, Residency requirements (effects black voters in the south as well). The Party System Approach Political history divided into stable party systems Voters fall out of based on 1-2 main cleavages (owner vs. worker, church vs. state, urban vs. rural, centre vs. periphery) The Cracks begin to show: Weakening of dominant party, Third parties arise, Rising turnout. Crisis Strikes, making new cleavage critical. Resulting in electoral realignment Possible results in critical election Partisan Divides 1976 Jeffersonian (1st) Party System : 7 Democrats, 1 Federals (VP Adams) War of 1812 convinced americans that we needed a stronger government. 1828-1856 Jacksonians (2nd) Party System: ^ Democrats, 2 Whigs (Harrison, Taylor, both military leaders) Lead up to the civil war, dissipating the Jacksonian party, the whigs cannot hold together, the church splits. 3 Monday, March 28, 2016 1860-1892 Civil War (3rd)Party System: 7 Republicans, 2 Democrats (Cleveland, who is the only president to win two nonconsecutive terms) 1896-1928 Industrial Republicans (4th): 7 Republicans, 2 Democrats (Wilson, who won because there was a third party) Great Depression breaks apart the system 1932-1964 New Deal (5th) Party System: 7 Democrats, 2 Republicans (Eisonhower, war hero, D-Day) 1960’s Party system collapses because of American’s disapproval of the party system. Pure Independent: does not lean toward any party Independent Leaner: lean toward one party (but are pretty much totally loyal toward the party to which they lean) Weak Partisians: Loyal to one group, but are not strongly loyal to that party. Rise of the independent leaner is a myth, when they actually go tot vote, they are just as loyal to one party as the weak partisans. We have had a rise in independent (leaners). They really believe that the party system has gone off the rails. They do not feel like the parties are really aligned with what they preach. Why do democrats and republicans keep switching control of the white house? Since 1968, the United States has elected mostly republicans. Southern Democrats so far constitute the only exceptions. 1968,1972 - Richard Nixon (Republicans) The system is totally redefined, however during his second term, we see the Watergate scandal, leading to the election of a democrat. 1976 - Jimmy Carter (Democrat from Georiga) 1980,1984 - Ronald Reagan (Republican) 1980,1984 - George H.W. Bush (republican) 1992,1996 - Bill Clinton (Republican) 2000, 2004 - George W. Bush (Republican) 4 Monday, March 28, 2016 What is going on during this period? White Southern Voters are voting Republican because they are from their area. They are voting for other southerners. They were holding Dual Partisanship. They are not loyal republicans. Republicans nationally, and democrats locally. POSSIBLE SHORT ANSWER 2008, 2012 - Barrack Obama (Democrat from the South) The crash of the economy gave the white house back to the Democrats. Until the election of Obama, we see this Dual Partisanship in the south electing white southerners, there is possibly a new party system. Obama won the “Black Belt”, a highly concentrated black area that was previously plantation area. They swung behind Obama. He also won the Hispanic vote in the South Western United States. He won Washington D.C., and got all of the votes of the government workers. He got the labor unions vote in upper midwestern areas of the United States. He won New England, he won the Pacific Coast (cultural) Immigration has changed the political system and it now favors the democrats. In the 7th Party System the republicans look doomed, they need a super candidate to win. 5


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