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COMM Notes Ch.27

by: Angie Martinez-Tejada

COMM Notes Ch.27 COMM1001

Angie Martinez-Tejada
Fashion Institute of Technology
GPA 3.3

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About this Document

Notes for Ch. 27
Introduction to Communication
Keith Richards
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angie Martinez-Tejada on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM1001 at East Carolina University taught by Keith Richards in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Communication in Language at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 03/28/16
COMM 1001 CH.27- Cultural Studies  Stuart Hall believes that media functions to maintain dominance of the powerful and to exploit the powerless.  Mainstream U.S. mass communication research ignores power struggle that the media masks.  Hall refers to his work as cultural studies rather than media studies -Cultural studies: the process of speaking out on oppression and linking subjugation (control) with media representations.  Cultural studies has been able to raise our consciousness of the media’s role in preserving the status quo.  Critical Theory: Hall believes that research should serve to change the world rather than simply analyzing/understanding it.  Hall’s “cultural studies” approach fits this model. It is a “critical” model. -A basic assumption of critical models is that we need to analyze power relationships. -The main goal is to expose inequality in communicative practice and give voice to marginalized groups.  Empower Others: Hall believes the purpose of theory and research is to empower people who are marginalized in order to change the world.  Hegemony: Marxism without guarantees. -Marx: desperate workers will overthrow the owners and create classless society. -Economic determinism: belief that human behavior and relationships are ultimately caused by differences in financial resources and the disparity in power that those gaps create.  Hegemony: the power that a society’s “have’s” hold over its “have-not’s”. (The social, cultural, ideological, or economic influence).  Hall emphasizes that media hegemony is not a conscious plot. It is not overtly coercive. -cultural industries: the procedures of a culture; television, radio, music, film, fashion, magazine, newspaper, etc.  Hegemony: Hegemony is invisible- We live it and assume it is “normal” -Taking the husband’s name after marriage –seems normal in our society but it still means something about gender.  Any departure from hegemonic beliefs or practices is seen as deviant.  Hegemony and Ideology: -Hegemony serves to keep ideology in place (the two support each other).  Ideologies are systems of thought that are widely shared or practiced.  Ideologies are biased, the never serve all people equally. -A capitalist ideology promotes profit over environmental safety. -A communist ideology promotes governmental control over individuals.  Ideologies serve prominent people in large groups.  Media reproduces ideological values in the process of producing programming.  We consume both the programming and the audience.  Why is this possible? Many audiences and media do not want to resist ideology or are unaware of it; in fact, many people promote it.  Because ideologies are taught from birth, most people do not recognize them for what they are.  We see reality as objective and unbiased even though it is completely biased by our beliefs.  Most people are afraid to challenge the “status quo”.  Those who benefit from ideologies will promote them to preserve their status.  Why is this possible? Resisting the status quo can be personally or financially threatening.  Resisting the status quo creates uncertainty. Resistance can lead a person to be punished for their actions.  Corporate control of mass communications: -Study of communications requires cultural context and reality of unequal power distribution in society to be theoretically relevant.  Media representations of culture reproduce social inequalities.


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