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Chapter 4: Recording Industry

by: Jacena Miles

Chapter 4: Recording Industry JOUR 1020

Jacena Miles
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About this Document

Combination of personal book notes and lecture notes.
American Media and Social Institutions
Robert K Kalwinsky
Class Notes
american media and social institutions, media history




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacena Miles on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JOUR 1020 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Robert K Kalwinsky in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 137 views. For similar materials see American Media and Social Institutions in Journalism and Mass Communications at Middle Tennessee State University.

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Date Created: 03/28/16
“Chapter 4: Recording Industry” Book/Lecture Notes  ● Thomas Edison  ○ First success of playing back sound  ○ Recording his voice by using a needle to press his voice’s sound waves  onto tinfoil wrapped around a metal cylinder  ○ Phonograph  ○ (folded during great depression) ● Emile Berliner  ○ Developed a better machine that played round, flat disks, or records made from metal and shellac ○ Also developed a technique that enabled him to mass­produce his sound  records, bringing sound recording to mass medium stage ○ Berliner’s records could be stamped with labels, allowing the music to be  differentiated by title, performer, and songwriter ­­ this led to the  development of the “star system”  ○ Victrola (early record player) 1925  ● WWII  ○ Shellac required for war effort, so record industry turned polyvinyl to  produce records (more durable) ● Post WWII  ○ An era of emotive soloists ○ Frank Sinatra  ● Hybrid Forms  ○ Jazz ○ R&B ○ Soul  ● Rock and Roll ○ Elvis Presley, Buddy Holly  ● Survival of Rock and Roll ○ Cheap radio play ○ Cold war and McCarthyism  ○ Emotional release for people at the time  ● Loss of binaries:  ○ High/low culture ■ Chuck Berry’s “Roll Over Beethoven” merged rock and roll (low  culture) with high culture  ○ Gender  ■ Little Richard wore feminine hairdos and makeup, therefore be  named rock and roll’s first drag queen  ○ Ethnicity  ■ Rockers like Buddy Holly combined country/hillbilly music, southern gospel. And Mississippi delta blues to create a sound called  rockabilly ■ Chuck Berry ■ Robert Johnson  ○ North and South ○ Sacred and Secular  ■ Many early rockers had close ties to religion  ● Rock and Roll Crisis (Decline of Rock n’ Roll) ○  Jerry Lee Lewis married his 13 year old cousin, causing people to look  down on rock and roll even more  ○ “The Day Music Died” ­­ Buddy Holly, Big Bopper, and Ritchie Valens died in a plane crash (all three big rock n’ roll stars)  ○ TV (ASCAP + BMI)  ○ Payola scandal (radio dj’s being paid to play certain music) ○ Back to wholesome appeals ● Today  ○ Eclectic  ○ Technology ­­ vinyl shifts to digital ● John Peter Zenger  ○ Seditious libel  ○ Andrew Hamilton ­­ basis of 1st Amendment  ● A Global Oligopoly  ○ Oligopoly: business situation in which few firms control most of an  industry’s production and distribution resources  ○ Recording industry has been hit in terms of profits by file sharing  ■ File sharing (LimeWire, etc) ‘ ○ Three companies in charge:  ■ Universal Music Group ■ Sony Music Entertainment ■ Warner Music Group  ● These groups control 90% of market ● 10% indies  ○ Independents/Indies ■ Control 10% of market ■ Use wholesale distributors for promotion and sales ■ Use the internet (CDBaby) ■ Majors look to them for trends ■  Often co­opted by majors ● Making The Recording  ○ Demo  ○ A&R Agents (“talent scouts”) ○ Typical recording session: ■ Artist ■ Producer ­ runs overall recording session (reserves space, hires  session musicians) ■ Session Engineer (oversees technical aspects)  ■ Audio technicians  ● Distribution/Exhibition ○ Getting it sold (retail) ■ Apple’s iTunes ­ over 40% music sold ■ Anderson Merchandisers ­ 18% ■ Amazon ­ 8% ○ Live performance  ■ Live Nation Entertainment ­ merger of Live Nation and Ticketmaster ­ largest promoter and venue owner  ● Profits ○ CD ­ half of the price listed is profit  ○ > 50% goes to music company  ○ Two main sources of profit for artist” ■ Record royalties  ■ Personal appearances  ■ Mechanical royalties (MP3s,covers,etC) ■ Performance royalty  ● Internet/The Cloud ○ Streaming  ○ 360 degree deal ● Feedback ○ Billboard  ■ Sales  ■ Exposure  ○ Pay for play (not technically payola) ● How Artists make $$? ○ Shows, performance, and merchandise  ● Hegemonic Influence ○ Anne Bader ■ 65% ­ man should not be shorter, weakers, poorer, etc than woman ■ 55% love will fix anything ■ Nothing about values or character ­­ looks and money     


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