Early Christian, Byzantine and Jewish Lecture Notes
Early Christian, Byzantine and Jewish Lecture Notes Art H 111
Popular in Ancient through medieval art
Popular in Art
This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joanna Nawn on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Art H 111 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Bruhn in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Ancient through medieval art in Art at Pennsylvania State University.
Reviews for Early Christian, Byzantine and Jewish Lecture Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/28/16
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes Dura Europos, Catacombs and Sarcophagi Lecture Roman Catacomb Located outside the walls of their cities because they believed that the dead carried corruption and decay Generally were along major roads Maze like underground tomb complex dug out of the tufa around Rome Tufa is a very soft volcanic stone that is easy to carve and hardens when exposed to air Started a generally small plot of land with grave sites excavated below o As more people were buried there the site would expand underground Churches were often built on top of catacombs that had a significant number of Christian graves Jewish and pagan people were also buried in the catacombs Many of the people buried in the catacombs were entured in rectangular niches dug into the walls called loculi o Loculi would be sealed and covered in decoration Sometimes a wealthy family would have a room in the catacombs it would be decorated on the walls and ceiling and hold all the family graves o Consists of a central medallion with lunettes on all four sides inside a circle o It shows the good shepherd, which is an example of syncretism an image from one tradition is given new meaning by another o The shepherd could also be seen as the pagan god Apollo or Hermes Another type of catacomb room is a cubiculum (room) Cubiculum room Held an entire family Enterd in the bench like projections and covered over in stone slabs Arcosolium/arcosolia a semicircular niches and built in grave for the body o 2 visible in this cubiculum Painted in the 4 century o After Christianity became the official religion of the empire Shows more overtly Christian images than the syncretic images from before Ceiling has an image of Christ with a halo Flanked by the Greek letters Alpha and Omega signify the beginning and end Arcosolium on the left is decorated with an image of the apostle Peter performing a miracle associated with him when he was imprisoned o He miraculously brought back water from a rock in his cell in order to baptize his fellow prisoners and jailers Arocosolium on the right is the central image o Decorated with an image of Christ flanked by the Roman marytrs Fliex and Aductus o Jewish Catacomb Found in 1918 by accident under the villa Torlonium in Rome Some nonJewish graves were found, but the majority were Jewish Have not been well studied due to a problem with noxious gases underneath the chambers Highly symbolic images without figures, unlike the Christian catacombs 2 menorahs flanking an image of the arch of the covenant o Also shows a jug of wine and cornucopia Jewish law forbade the worship of idols, meaning that Jewish art often times does not contain representations of humans Dura Europos Located in Syria Natural defenses due to landscape The vulnerable side was strengthened by a massive wall Hellenistic fortress taken over by the Romans in 165 CE Later destroyed in 256 257CE by assassin Persian invaders o When they attacked the Romans strengthened the wall by filling the holes with earth and rubble o Acted to persevere these buildings very well Found a Jewish synagogue and Christian church as well as other religions that worshipped an afterlife during excavations Jewish Synagogue Located originally in what was a private house The main rectangular room was where the worshippers assembled o Preceded by a four court You could only enter by going through one of the houses surrounding the synagogue Torah shrine a place where the Jewish holy books were kept The wall images are unusual because there are many images of human beings o Not unusual for this time period o The images were meant to instruct The images illustrate the people and events of the Jewish holy books Western wall of the synagogue Includes the Torah shrine All of the images depict scenes from the Jewish scriptures, many of which Christians consider make up the Old Testament Moses and the Red Sea depicts the parting of the Red Sea and the Egyptian army being drowned God caused the Red Sea to part when Moses raised his staff allowing the Israelites to cross safely from Egypt The Egyptian army followed and when Moses raised his staff again God caused the army to drown Shows a before and after image o Israelites passing in an orderly fashion on the left o On the left the Egyptian army is drowning o Moses appears twice and so does the hand of God o These images unlike the Christian images do not show the image of God just the hand of God alone Baby Moses Meant to read the narrative from right to left The right shows Moses’ mother placing him in the waters of the Nile in a basket watched over by his sister In the center baby Moses has been spotted by a nude female, either pharaoh’s daughter or a servant to rescue the child On the left Moses has been taken from the water being handed by his sister to his mother o Moses’ sister stayed by the riverside after her brother was placed into the Nile and offered to fetch the mother to be a nursemaid for the child The sister appears twice in this scene Torah Shrine Painted arch above the niche is a representation of the temple in Jerusalem To the left of the temple is a menorah originally housed in the temple of Jerusalem On the right is a representation of the sacrifice of Issac by Abraham According to Jewish tradition the site of the sacrifice of Issac was later used for solimens temple in Jerusalem Emphasis is not on the painted imagery, but on important symbols of the Jewish faith Christian Church in Dura Europas Occupied a Christian house along the western wall of the city A house church a private house used for Christian worship Layout is typical of a modest sized Roman house with rooms grouped around a central courtyard Two rooms of the house were significantly modified for Christian function A dividing wall was removed in order to create a large assembly room on one side of the house (left side) A room on the other side was converted into a baptistery with a covered basin on the western wall for the baptism of converts (right side) Baptistery The basin had a design close to an arocosolium in the catacombs Basin located in the same space that would used for housing the dead body Wall paintings in here refer to christs death and resurrection and to the good shepherd The Three Marys The right wall has a damaged painting of the three Mary's at the tomb of Christ o Mary the mother, Mary Magdalin, and a third Mary the sister of Martha o Tomb in the painting is adjacent to the baptismal basin making the connection between death, resurrection and baptism very clear Painting Above the Basin Represents the good shepherd carrying a lost sheep on his back and accompanied by the rest of his flock Represented christ’s promise of salvation Mosaic floor from the Synagogue at Maian This is the site of ancient menosis Covered in symbolic imagery At the center of this fragment is the menorah Flanked by lions of Judah Beneath is a Showfar (Rams horn) blown on ceremonial occasions o Traditionally represented the concept of divine forgiveness and redemption On the other side of the menorah also at its foot are three sitrons used in the celebration of the Jewish harvest festival Sucaught Numerous animals and plants are shown likely representing the universal peace prophecized by Issaiah Represents the art world of the late antique period as well as Jewish festivals Lions and birds facing each other are reminiscent of the ancient near eastern tradition The rich representations of the earths bounty can also be found in wealthy Greek and Roman dwellings Jewish and Christian artists drew upon the artistic motifs that were all around them Marble Statuette of the Good Shepherd Part of a larger group of statuettes including 6 portrait busts and 4 representations of Jonah Original find site is unknown Analysis of the marble has allowed scholars to determine that the marble was quarried in the Roman imperial quarry at Dosimian in ancient fridgia (now central Turkey) Grouped together due to their similarities and style If it weren't for the finding of the Jonah statuettes it would be very difficult to identify this statuette as a Christian subject o Could be mistaken for pagan Adheres to the classical tradition Poses in a familiar stance with an engaged leg Arms and shoulders seem too large for his frame The care the shepherd has for his sheep is conveyed clearly Jonah Statuettes 2 statuettes represent Jonah being swallowed by the whale on the left and Jonah being cast forth by the whale on the right Each one is very dynamic Jonah has been captured in motion Modeling of face and hair recall the Classical Greek art style Extremely well executed Used by scholars to dispel the myth that art of the early Christian period is somehow inferior in quality Relief Sarcophagus Found in the church of Santa Maria Atiqua in Rome located on the Roman forum A collection of syncretic images that could have both Christian and non Christian interprerdtions Made in the late 3 century Oront figure could be seen as a worshipper of any religion Seated man with the book next to her is a philosopher or teacher Behind him the shepherd and his sheep is a pastoral figure or a representation of Apollo, Hermes or orpius The man with the child by a river is possibly a father and son The sleeping male nude under the sheltering vine could be anyone When viewed in a Christian context we see Jonah as the nude o Confirmed by the presence of the boat and the sea monster o The Oront becomes a Christian worshipper o The man with the book is the teaching Christ o The shepherd is Christ as the good shepherd o The man and boy at the riverside represent baptism Imperial Sponsorship of Christian Art under Constantine Lecture Battle of Milvian Bridge Where Constantine beat Maxentius outside of Rome Constantine made a battle standard made in the shape of a cross decorated with the first two Greek letters of Christ’s name Chi and Rho in a reef o This is an important turning point for Christianity and the patronage of Christian art The year after the battle Constantine issued the Edict of Milan o Made Christianity an officially tolerated religion throughout the empire, restored property that had been taken from individual Christians and the church, and allowed Christians to worship freely and openly The Church of Old St. Peter’s in Rome A Christian basilica that Constantine built over the grave of St. Peter The building suffered from decay over the centuries and destroyed during the Reinassiance The original was a large circus where horse races took place and an Acropolis nearby The Acropolis was believed to contain the remains of St. Peter o Christians began to gather at the site to venturate the Saint o Peter’s name Petros comes from the Greek word for rock o Peter is the rock among which Jesus built his church o St. Peter was the first pope and the foundation for the church Constantine built Peter’s basilica above peter’s grave It was important to have this direct connection with the Saint because this site was believed to be holy In the early ages people believed that the graves of Saints, places were saints had died, or miracles had taken place were holy providing a connection between the earth below and the heaven above o They gathered at these places asking the saints for intercession on their behalf Many Christians wanted to be buried close to the remains of the saints in the hope that in the last days when the saints rose to heaven they would get there a little faster because they were in proximity to the Saint The alter of Saint Peters basilica is located in front of the apse and directly over Peter’s grave Due to the slop of the site the apse of the church, it's focal point was located in the west o Unusual for a Christian church o Churches built during the early Christian period through the Middle Ages were built with the apse in the east the direction of the rising sun symbolizing the resurrection Built it as a basilica so it could house a large number of people Richly decorated with colored marble columns that had been reused from early Roman temples forming the colonnades separating the nave and double aisles o Columns ranged from green serpentine to yellow to red and green granite The capitals were spoils from Roman temples o Some were composite and others were the Corinthian order The nave was decorated with enormous frescos depicting Old Testament scenes 11 massive windows were on the nave with no windows in the inner aisle o the outer aisle and transept were lit with Windows Above the high alter was a large canopy or pavilion called a seborium o Directly over the grave of St. Peter Parts of a Basilica Consists of a large central space called a nave with aisles on either side separated by a colonnade Old Saint Peters has two aisles on either side of the colonnade, MOST HAVE ONE AILSE ON EITHER SIDE At the end of the nave is a large horizontal space called a transept Where the transept and nave meet is an area called a crossing The transept is a new element added by Constantine’s architects o Allowed for additional space for pilgrims and worshippers Lined up with the axis of the nave, the focal point of the basilica is the apse Generally the high alter is either housed within the apse or just in front of it Most basilicas are entered by means of a narthex a covered entrance porch o This was used for the gathering of people who had not yet been baptized Old Saint peters and many other basilicas were preceded by a large atrium or an open courtyard entered by means of a gatehouse Church of Santa Sabina One of the most well persevered churches Built at the top of the avintine hill built at the site of the temple Juno raygina using many of its materials Was an expansion of a Roman house church owned by a woman named Sabina She persevered the title of her name in the church by adding Saint to her name We know the exact date due to an mosaic inscription on the wall above the doors of the church Built without a transept Consists of just a nave flanked by aisles and ending in an enormous apse Spolia refers to spoils, pieces of other monuments reused in a new context Contains 24 Corinthian columns and bases which were spolia reused from the temple of Juno The spandrels of the closely spaced arches have inlaid marble designs in green and purple depicting chalices and patons to represent the Eucharist The original doors were made of cypress wood in the 420s and were carved rd The frame around the doors is made of 3 century marble spolia 18 panels of narrative carving, most depicting biblical scenes o They are not in there original order and 10 others have been lost Ascension of Elijah Wooden Door Panel Elijah was one of the Old Testament prophets who worked great miracles and counciled Kings Elijah was taken into heaven instead of dying a natural death Walking with another prophet Elicha A fiery chariot with horses came down from heaven and separated the two men Elijah was taken up to heaven in a huge whirlwind Elicha and some of Elijah’s followers at the bottom of the panel Elicha is in the posture of surprise with one arm pointing up to the sky The composition is designed to lead the eye upward Basilica of Santa Maria in Rome Underwent many changes including a new façade, chapels and redecoration Coffered ceiling is from the 15 century Seborium in front of the high alter is barroque Apse mosaic behind it is gothic and well as the floor The colonnade separating the nave from the aisle is Athenian marble th The columns were either made for the 5 century basilica or spolia from another building in Rome The capitals and column bases are 18 century replacements A large portion of the original mosaic survives The triumphal arch mosaics before the apse are original o The subject is the infancy of Christ with emphasis upon the role of the Virgin Mary as the mother of Jesus The church was built after the council of Episis o Declared Mary to be theotocus mother of god Original apse mosaic is believed to have been Mary flanked by saints The current mosaic which is gothic shows the virgin in throne begin crowned queen of heaven Many of the original Old Testament panels upon the nave have survived The Parting of Lot and Abraham Mosaic Located along the nave wall just below the clear story level The panel is 5ft high Mosaics like this were intended to instruct showing scenes from the Old Testament that would prefigure the events in the New Testament and also to glorify the church with rich decoration The landscape that fills the lower level of the panel is a background of gold o Made by placing thin sheets of gold leaf inside the glass o Gold tesserae were often placed at an angle so that they would catch the light and glitter The colors were achieved with the use of colored glass in addition to the colored stone that was traditional in Roman mosaics Artist achieved the illusion of three demensionality through the use of shadows and highlights o Noticeable on the central figure’s garments and on the animals below them A portion of the mosaic has been restored and appears to be painted The upper register shows the parting of Abraham and his people on the left and Abraham and his nephew Lot with his people on the right o Their descendants have become too numerous so they split from one another with Lot and his daughters heading to the land of Jordan and Abraham and his wife staying in Cana Abraham’s son Issaic stands beside him and Lot’s daughters precede him as he walks away The wife of each man is visible just behind his shoulder The followers of Abraham and Lot have been reduced to a shadowy collection of heads and a few shillouetted bodies and limbs The building on the far left indicates the established settlement where Abraham and his people were made while Lot and his people process toward what appears to be a gateway as they leave for Jordan Santa Constansa Originally built as a mausoleum for Constantine’s daughters Constantina and Helena Constantina was later venerated as a Saint Santa Constansa was originally attached to a basilica (the basilica of Saint Agnes or Santa Neasea) The basilica functioned as a covered graveyard where Christians seeking to be buried close to the grave of Saint Agnes sought burial Santa Constasa is the largest tomb among many at Santa Neasea o Rather than being enclosed within the basilica, it is its own building Entered by way of a narthex, which originally connected into the large cemetery basilica of Santa Neasea o Inside it consists of a round central rotunda topped by a dome and lit by a high clear story o This is surrounded by an ambulatory a barrel vaulted passageway that encircles it There was a large bay at the opposite of the entrance o Scholars believe that the bay originally housed the sarcophagus of Constantina The ambulatory vault was completely decorated with mosaics and there were mosaics in the large niches in the ambulatory as well Mausoleum was constructed entirely of Roman brick The alter is located at the center The dome is held up with pairs of columns The large windows from the clear story provide a great deal of light for the space Sarcophagus of Constantina Consists of garlands and vine scrolls along with animals Made of Porifery purple marble stone Ambulatory *Vault mosaic shows harvest scenes and vines surrounding a portrait bust o Alternate geometric designs and scenes of wine making on white ground o There are scenes of wine making in the ambulatory 2 of them, one of the portrait bust of Constantina at the center and the other with a portrait bust of her husband *Constantina Ambulatory Vault Mosaic Shows grapes being harvested, transported to the press and sopped all part of the process of wine making Vines curl and twine over the entire composition At the top center is a well rendered bust of Constantina Cupid type figures are climbing the vines o This could be a pagan mosaic depicting scenes associated with Bacus o The syncretic subject probably appealed to Constantina’s husband who was not a Christian The giveaway that this is a Christian mosaic is the fact that the apsidal niches in the ambulatory contain overtly Christian decoration The references of wine are symbolic to the Eucharist Apse mosaic showing Christ enthroned Located in the apse of one of the semicircular niches in the ambulatory Shown handing a scroll of the law to Saint Peter Peter receives the law with veiled hands showing the preciousness and holiness of the law Christ is dressed in imperial purple and is seated on a globe representing his role as ruler of the universe Uses imperial imagery in a Christian context Ravenna in Northern Italy A small community that is a treasure trove of early Christian and th th Byzantine monuments of the 5 and 6 centuries Mausoleum of Galopotchinia A small brick structure One of the oldest monuments in Ravenna According to tradition this building was meant to house the tomb of Galopotchinia, daughter of the emperor Theodojus I and half sister to Annorius She became a powerful virtual ruler of the western world for 12 years as regent for her young son Valinteniun III Scholars believe that she probably commissioned this building but was never buried there The mausoleum was attached to a church (Sata Croche or the Church of the Holy Cross) which was also built by her Only the name survives from the early 5 century church The mausoleum is a crossed shaped building was sarcophagi housed in each one of projecting arms of the cross The sarcophagi was once believed to be those of Galopotchinia, her husband and her brother o It was actually dedicated to St Laurence Each of the cross arms has a barrel vault over it and a free standing stone sarcophagus underneath Windows are made of thinly cut alabaster that lightens the space with a warm glow Above the stone half wall the interior is entirely decorated in colored mosaics The mosaic below the dome shows 2 apostles in togas making gestures associated with Roman orators o Between them beneath the Windows is a small fountain flanked by doves o Symbolizes eternal life in heaven *Mosaic of St Laurence The mosaic opposite to the entrance depicts the martyrdom of St Laurence o Grilled alive by an enormous grid iron, which is represented at the center of the mosaic o An open cabinet displays the four gospels Mosaic includes tesserae of colored glass and of gold leaf sandwiched between the pieces of clear glass Mosaic Above the entrance Lunette(semi circular area) above the entrance way Has a barrel vault decorated with floral designs above it Framed by patterns of rolling waves in gold and dark blue Depicts Christ as the good shepherd seated in a rocky landscape o Shown in a gold imperial robe complete with a cloth of imperial purple draped over his shoulder and across his lap o No way to confuse him with a pagan God but still an image of syncretism because we have a Christian use of Roman imperial imagery Highly illusionistic Baptistery of the Orthodox Located in Ravenna Built as part of Ravenna’s orthodox cathedral Constructed in the early 5 century but no longer stands in its original form Converted from an old Roman bathhouse Oxtoginal and constructed of brick topped with a dome made of hollow tubes to save weight We call this the orthodox baptistery because there is a nonorthodox baptistery in Ravenna as well built by Christians who followed Arianism The Arians denied that Christ was the son of God defining Jesus instead as a second lesser God created by God the father Orthodox is very different from this point of view Christ had always existed rather than being created as the son of God Arians were condemned as heretics The center of the baptistery’s cupola is a mosaic laid out in circles like a wheel The central medallion(tondo) depicts the baptism of christ by John the Baptist in the river Jordan o The right arm of John the Baptist, the dove and christs head are all th 18 century restorations th o The dish that St. John is using to pour the water was added in 19 century by a Roman artist named imphily saycebow who was charged with restoring the mosaic The majority of the dome mosaic survives in its original form The lower right of the central baptism scene has a personification of the Jordan river as an old man rising from the water holding a reed in one hand and offering a garment to Christ in the other The central scene is surrounded by a large inner ring with the 12 apostles who carried crowns in veiled hands and walk slowly in procession o The men each identified by their name in mosaic are depicted in deep blues and sparkling golds The outer ring of the mosaic is divided into 8 sections with alternating empty thrones representing the divinity of Christ and alters with open gospel books o The thrones are flanked by depictions of the celetical gardens and the alters are flanked by empty chairs to represent the place reserved in heaven for the elect Has a hierarchical scale with the prophets on the lowest level and closest to the viewer o Done in relief sculpture to make them feel more earthly Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus A Roman official who converted to Christianity shortly before he died Typology an allegorical technique in which events from the Old Testament are used as allegories for events in the New Testament Christ is the central figure of both registers At the top Christ is enthroned flanked by Peter and Paul shown handing the Christian law to new important saints Top central scene of Christ giving the law to Peter and Paul Christ is enthroned and dressed as a teacher or philosopher Christ’s feet rest on a representation of the Roman god of the sky o Shows that he is seated in heaven and is the divine ruler The columns are decorated with relief images of fat Cupids (putti) gathering grapes Lower register Christs entry into Jerusalem shortly before his death Christ wear rich looking robes and enters under a triumphal arch Several references to sin and salvation Adam and Eve are shown having committed the sin of eating the nd forbidden fruit (2 Scene) o Cover themselves in shame because they realize their nakedness o This is fixed by Abraham sacrificing Issaic in the upper register(1 st scene) Example of typology o Another example of christs sacrifice can be seen in the double register on the upper register (last scene) of christ’s arrest and trial Includes an image of Piot washing his hands th Old Testament scene of Daniel in the Lions den (4 scene) is a typological reference to Christ’s victory over death and the resurrection o Originally depicted nudes but his replacement is clothed st 1 lower register scene shows Job at the height of his suffering having lost everything is also a typological reference to Christ this time to his suffering Arrest of Peter upper register 2 scene th Arrest of Paul 5 scene lower register o They both allude to the suffering of the Christian marytrs All together the sarcophagus presents a message of salvation for Christians despite suffering and death with Christ as the ruler of heaven and the giver of the new Christian law Justinian (Constantinople and Ravenna) Lecture Walls of Constantinople Consisted of a tall inner wall and an outer wall that was shorter The two walls were preceded by an enormous moat There were only 8 gates into the city along the walls and each was guarded by enormous double towers Walls were built with a rubble and concrete core faced by cut stone with leveling courses of brick Justinian’s use of architecture as propaganda Had Procopius his court historian write an entire history dedicated just to the building campaigns of Justinian His building projects were incredibly expensive, large and daring One of the most impressive buildings was the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople Hagia Sophia Represents a dramatic change from the typical churches that had been built before Justinian’s reign o The most common beforehand was the timber roofed basilica with or without a transept Centrally planned churches were less common This church combines some characteristics from both types There was an earlier site that had been built around 360 and remodeled th early in the 5 century In 532 that church was destroyed during a week of violent riots in Constantinople Hagia Sophia was built very quickly over a period of just 5 years Was seen as a victory monument for Justinian Hired two men who were architects and scientists to design the building o Anthibious had written a tridus on geometry and was an inventor who dabbled in steam power o Isadorus taught physics at the university of Alexandria and then at the university at Constantinople. Also the author of a tridus on vaulting Hagia Sophia means holy wisdom Central dome (naos) partially adheres to the plan of centrally planned churches There is a clear focal point in the apse which is reached by means of a long central open space that resembles a nave People gathered in the aisles and galleries which were very large The central space was reserved for the clergy and the emperor There were two ceremonial entrances that took place in the liturgy. The lesser entrance and the greater entrance o Lesser entrance the clergy entered followed by the faithful o Greater entrance the vessels for the celebration of the Eucharist were brought in by deacons in a procession Most of the service took place inside the apse and out of the view of the gathered faithful The central space was a performance space where portions of the service that were visible to the faithful took place The central space was covered by a dome Hagia Sophia Dome Placed windows around the perimeter of the dome Dome supports were placed in a way so they wouldn’t appear massive Your eye goes to the half domes surrounding the central space o Have semicircular exedra that billow outward from them The original dome collapsed in 558 with the new dome completed in 563 th Flying buttresses were added in the 9 century added to support the weight that the new dome exerted on the walls In 1453 the church was converted into a masque with minerettes added Interior of Hagia Sophia The dome rests on pendentives triangular sections that form the transition between the round base of the dome and the square formed by the four arches supporting it Changes to the interior were made after the Turkish conquest of 1453 when it was transformed into a masque o Now it serves as a museum The yellow paint on the pendentives, side walls, half domes and exedra covers up mosaic decoration and was added after 1453 o The mosaics were figural and were added after the time of Justinian Another changes was the addition of 4 enormous medallions with qufic script on them San Vitale in Ravenna Built under three different bishops of Ravenna Construction was financed by a local banker Bricks used are long and thin like the ones used in Constantinople rather than local bricks The vault of the dome was built with hollow tubes inserted into each other which serves to make the dome lighter Is octagonal and centrally planned The apse and the choir that precedes it are the clear focal point o Set a part from the ambulatory The central space billows out into the semicircular exedrae that surround it Second story of the exedrae is the gallery level Colored marble veneer originally decorated the piers and walls o Made of heavily pattered vein stone that was thinning sliced and placed in patterns that were made up of four pieces so that they mirror each other Apse Mosaic San Vitale Shows a youthful Christ in imperial purple robes trimmed with gold seated on a huge globe o Indicates that he is the divine ruler of the world and the universe On either side he is flanked by angels, beside the angels being lead by them are San Vitale (left) and Bishop Aclasius (right) started the building campaign Christ holds a martyrs crown out to Saint Vitale passing it across in front of the angel Also holds a codex symbolizing the new Christian law in his left hand Bishop Aclasius offers a model of San Vitale to Christ The figures are shown against a backdrop of a glittering gold sky Around the mosaic is mosaic decoration that includes representations of old testament prophets, angels, lambs and rich decorative boarders of scroll work The vault above the sanctuary is decorated with an image of the lamb of god inside a medallion supported by 4 angels who stand against fields of vine scrolls All the mosaics and designs are examples of christ’s Eucharistic sacrifice Justinian Mosaic at San Vitale Justinian is accompanied by soldiers, priests, courtchers and Bishop Maxemian Justinian carries a paten for the bread of the Eucharist Next to him Bishop Maxemian holds a cross Priests carry the gospel book and incense This represents the great entrance that took place before the service where the clergy and congregation would process in with the offerings of bread and wine o Wine is missing in this mosaic because Theodora is holding it in the accompanying mosaic Only one inscription of Bishop Maxemian is here but all identities are clear because of the clothing indicating their status Theodora Mosaic at San Vitale Located on the apse on one of the sides next to the windows. Justinian’s mosaic is on the other side of the windows Theodora is shown holding an elaborate chalice for the wine She is accompanied by courtchers and female attendants Scholars believe that the couple are shown in two separate parts of the church o Justinian in the central part of the church and Theodora in the curtained doorway and fountain outside the church Clothing indicates everyone’s status Reference to the magi representing how important the king and queen are giving gifts to Christ Illusion of 3 dimensionality depends on the use of different colored tesserae next to one another Apse in Sant’Apollinare in Classe Begun by Bishop Acalsius th Apse decoration was made in the 6 century Shows the transfiguration of Christ Christ took the apostles Peter, James and John with him on a mountain top and Christ was transfigured before them o His face shone like the sun and his garments appeared as white as the bright light o Old testament prophets Moses and Elijah came down and spoke to Jesus Important event because it is the moment that Jesus is revealed as the son of god A highly symbolic mosaic where Christ is not present Christ is shown as an enormous gold cross on a starry sky framed by a gold and red border It is placed at the very center of the apse against a glittering sky filled with wispy white clouds Moses and Elijah are shown as half length toga figures and are labeled with their names o Each one gestures toward the central medallion as if in conversation At the apex of the mosaic is a hand reaching down from the heavens, the hand of god On the ground are Peter, James and John shown as three sheep looking up at the medallion of Christ At the center bottom stands a man in bishops clothes in an oront pose o He is flanked by 12 lambs representing the apostles o He is saint Apollinare’s a local bishop saint Ivory Carving and Diptych Panel Use the outer portions of tusk Christians used religious themed diptychs to inscribed the names of people who they wish to have remembered with prayers during the mass Shows the archangel Michael holding a staff of authority and an orb symbolizing worldly power Over Michael’s head is an inscription that would have been completed on the missing panel o It reads “receive these gifts and having learned the cause” Michael is shown as a naturalistic figure with curly hair like the flavian lady Stands in front of an elaborate carved archway with acanthus moldings and fluted Corinthian columns Manuscript Image from the Viena Genesis Figures are similar to those found in Aniock Vellum pages are dyed purple and the lettering is done in silver ink that has tarnished over the centuries Purple dye murex was rare and expensive Murex comes from the shell of a sea snail primarily along the coast of modern day Morocco o Dye was worth its weight in silver o Generally reserved in roman times for imperial use Scholars believe that due to the fact it was reserved for imperial use that this manuscript may have been made for a member of the imperial family There is an importance on the narrative images due to the fact that they take up half of the page Depicts Rebekka at the well and a servant who was sent back to Abraham’s home land to find a wife for his son Issac o The servant went to the town of Nahor and waited outside the walls of the town with his camels near a spring o The servant then prayed to god to help him find a wife for Issac o The right women would be the one who offered him a drink when he asked for it o The right woman was Rebekka was came from the family of Abraham’s sister in law A continuous narrative similar to what would have been found on a scroll Manuscript from the Rabula Gospels Named for the monk who signed them Illustrations show more than just the biblical events o They also show the broader Christian interpretation of these events Upper register o Christ wears royal robes of purple o Shown not dead on the cross by alive and triumphant over death o Thief who repented looks up because he will be joining Christ in heaven o Mary is shown in her rich purplish blue robes and halo with John the evangelist o The spear bearer is next to Christ piercing his side and the men below him are betting on him o Next to the repentant thief are holy women o The sky has representations of the sun and moon indicating the cosmic importance of this event Lower register o Shows the virgin Mary and Mary Magdaline at the tomb o They are greated by an angel who sits beside the empty tomb o Tomb with the sleeping soldiers is directly below christ’s cross deliberately reminding us that Christ is triumphant over death o Christ is shown again on the right side with his mother and Mary Magdaline kneeling before him as he lifts his hand in a gesture of blessing Second Illustration from the Rabula Gospel Shows christ’s ascension into heaven after the resurrection Appearance of the virgin Mary wearing the imperial bluish purple robes has a halo and lifts her arms in an oront pose o She has been included to remind us that Christ is both fully human and fully divine. She reminds us of his human nature On either side of Mary are angels one lifts his hand to indicate Jesus’ ascension and the other instructs the apostles There are additional angels above flanking Christ two are around the oval mandorla on which he stand and the other two offer him crowns with their hands veiled in purple cloth o The crown baring angels are an illusion to a new testament passage from Hebrews indicating Christ’s human nature Mandorla an oval or almond shape that it used in Christian art to enclose a figure and indicate that the figure is in a heavenly space Beneath the mandorla is a composite creature that has four heads: a lion, an eagle, an ox and a human with four wings covered in eyes o Shows up several times for an old testament prophet and shows up in revelation as the four apocalyptic beasts Saint Paul is shown holding a codex in one hand and pointing up at Christ with the other hand o This is a reference to Paul’s writings Depicts complex Christian ideas Middle and Late Byzantine Lecture Monastery of Saint Katherine’s on Mt Sini Justinian built this monument on the foot of Jabal Mosa o Means mountain of Moses Arabic and where it is said that Moses received the 10 commandments Its small library contains about 500 volumes of valuable manuscripts in Greek, Arabic, Syraic, Ethiopic, and other languages The extreme isolation of this monument meant that its manuscripts and icons survived the period of iconoclasm o This is when all religious images were destroyed throughout the Byzantine world o Iconoclasm dominated most of the 8 and 9 century officially ending in 843CE Icons Greek for image Icons were images of the saints, the virgin, Christ, angels or a group of these holy figures that were used by byzantine Christians as a visual focus for their prayers Was a means for an earthly viewer to have contact with the divine Some icons were thought to be miraculously produced and not painted by human hands Icon of Mary and Baby Jesus Depicts Mary enthroned and the baby Jesus in her lap flanked by saints Theodore on the left and Saint George on the right o Both are warrior saints Behind them are two angels looking at heaven Created in encaustic on wood Like the fayom mummy portraits this icon puts a great deal of emphasis on the eyes particularly Mary and the saints Artist used modeling to create the illusion of 3 dimensional bodies Also used intuitive perspective to give the illusion that Mary, the saints and angels are occupying a real space Mary is shown as the Theotocos (god barer) a powerful all forgiving mother figure who acts as an intersessor for Christians begging for mercy from her son Jesus on their behalf Also shown in her role as the seat or throne of wisdom and throne of Solomon Councils Councils took place to discuss the role of icons There were those who supported their use and those who were violently opposed to them Those who supported them tried to preserve them and keep them in use The iconoclasts who opposed them sought to have destroyed This back and forth fighting took place during most of the 8 and 9 h centuries Numerous manuscripts, icons and mosaics were destroyed Iconoclasm ended in 843 CE which marked the beginning of the middle byzantine period Chuldov Psalter The earliest surviving byzantine psalter Made in Constantinople shortly after the end of iconoclasm Depicts two images that are being thematically linked The right shows an image of Christ being crucified with blood flowing from his side in suffering from the spear and sponge bearers The lower margin shows a figure identified as a iconoclast patriarch of the eastern church prepares to destroy an image of Christ by white washing it The implication is that the destruction of an icon of Christ is a kin to the crucifixion itself The Virgin of Vladimir Created after the end of Iconoclasm Except for the faces was retouched in later centuries Roost were converted to Christianity by the byzantine’s Byzantine artists were brought to cieve for the building and decoration of the Cathedral of Saint Sophia Damaged in a fired and later restored It is a type of icon called the virgin of compassion It is believed to be after a painting that Saint Luke made of the virgin and child based upon a vision that he had of the nativity This particular icon was believed to provide protection to whatever city possessed it which made it a valuable commodity Church of Saint Sophia The exterior was heavily remodeled in the baroque period Its plan and brick construction indicate a connection with the city of Constantinople o It was probably made from builders from Constantinople Had 13 domes in all and is an expansion of a quincunx dome over square plan o Draws the eye upward into the lit dome Exterior decoration consisted of mosaics and frescos was achieved by byzantine artists brought from Greece This church was highly influential in the development of Russian architecture Its middle byzantine program has been well preserved o None of the churches in Constantinople still possess their original mosaics Has mosaics in the central dome, the apse and the arches of the crossing Below the piers and wall are embellished painting that represent the lives of Christ, the virgin, the apostles Peter and Paul, and the archangels o Very expensive and made a major political statement declaring the importance and wealth of both Prince Yarosolf the patron and the church in Cieve The mosaic decoration presents a clear hierarchy of subject matter The central dome contains a image of Christ Entocredor (Christ ruler of the universe) Beneath Christ between the windows of the dome stand the 12 apostles Beneath them are the four evangelists in the pendentives The virgin Mary dominates the enormous apse mosaic standing in a oront pose Below Mary on the walls of the apse Christ appears twice with the bread and wine celebrating the sacrifice of the mass in the area where this would actually take place Iconostasis separates the sanctuary and the apse from the area beneath the central dome o Would have blocked a lot of the eastern Christian ceremony from public view o Decorated with glided icons of virgin Mary with the Christ child on the left and Christ on the right o This particular iconostasis was made in baroque style and made during renovations were being made to the church Two Churches of the Monastery of Hosious Lucas in Greece Means holy/saint Luke The larger one is the principle church of the monastery and is called the cotholicon o Built over Saint Luke’s grave Dedicated the local saint Luke who lived as a hermit and died on this site Both churches were later rebuilt Do not know the patron but due to the expensive mosaic scholars believe it could have been a member of the imperial family Made of brick and cut ashlar stones The smaller chuch is called the theotocos o It was dedicated to the virgin Mary Cotholicon Has a cross in square plan with a central dome Dome covers a square central space and is supported by squinches o Squinches are like pendentives used to make the transition between the round dome and the square formed by the supporting arches beneath it o Acts as a diagonal lintel The central space of the dome extends outward to the four arms of the cross Interior is decorated with colored marble veneers and mosaics Central dome is decorated with Christ as ruler of the universe The dome of the sanctuary has a central medallion depicting Christ as the lamb of god surrounded by 12 apostles The apse mosaic shows the virgin and child enthroned There are scenes from the old and new testament throughout the church The iconostasis depicts the virgin and child on the left and Christ on the right Church of the Dormission at Daphni Crucifixion Mosaic Shows Mary and John the evangelist flanking the cross The damaged upper portion once included angels flanking the top of the cross Restorations took place in the late 19 century Does not show Christ in imperial clothes He is shown visibly suffering and dying Streams of blood and water shot out from the wound in his side o These represent the wine of the Eucharist and the water of life The skull beneath the cross is Adam o Reflecting the tradition that Adam was buried where the crucifixion took place o Christ sacrificing himself for peoples sins is the new Adam, redeeming Adam’s original sin Cathedral of Saint Mark Was given the plan of an arm greek cross with a central dome and a dome on each of the arms The interior upper walls, vaults and domes are made of gold and colored glass mosaics The lower walls are covered in colored marble veneer Silver Gilde and Enamle Icon of the Archangel Michael Brought the Venice after the sac of Constantinople by crusaders in 1204 The relief head, arms and hands are made using the repousse method o Pushing the design outward from the back of a flat piece of metal Fine details of the eyes, nose and hair were made with a technique called chasing His wings and checkered border are made in closani enamel Small closani medallions of saints decorate several areas of the icon o In this technique small wire are soddered onto a flat surface creating individual cells that are filled with powdered glass and fired His garments are a combination of enamel and inlaid glass and precious stones The ornamented surface of the icon and its frame are embellished with stamped decoration and filigree (decorative technique using twisted wires that are soddered to a flat surface to create intricate designs) The entire piece was made of silver and then gilded Haboval Triptych An example of byzantine classism and ivory work from the Romanos workshop Made up of three pieces: central panel and two hinged wings that open and close They were meant to be a focus for prayer ?
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'