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3/22-3/24 Bio 102 Notes

by: Alyssa Shriver

3/22-3/24 Bio 102 Notes Bio 102

Alyssa Shriver
GPA 2.7

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These notes are on Exam 3. 3/22-3/24
Introduction to Biology
Dr. Jeremy Chandler
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Shriver on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 102 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Jeremy Chandler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 03/28/16
3/22/16 Lecture Community and Ecosystem Ecology Continued  Ecosystem Biotic Trophic Structures o Primary consumers are called herbivores, which eat plants o Above the level of primary consumers are carnivores, which eat the  consumers from the level below   Secondary consumers eat primary consumers  Tertiary consumers eat secondary consumers  Quaternary consumers eat tertiary consumers  Ecosystem o Complex, interwoven system of interacting components o Includes both community of living organisms and features of the nonliving  environment  o Biotic and abiotic parts  o Dynamic systems  A Hierarchy of Interactions  o Many different factors can potentially affect an organism’s interaction with  the environment  Biotic factors are   All of the organisms in the area and  The living component of the environment   Abiotic factors  Are the environment’s nonliving component and  Include chemical and physical factors, such as temperature,  light, water, minerals, and air  Environmental Variability  o The abiotic factors in a habitat may vary  From year to year  Seasonally, or  Over the course of a day  Temperature o Temperature affects metabolism  Few organisms can maintain a sufficiently active metabolism at  temperatures close to 0 degrees C  Temperatures above 45 degrees C destroy the enzymes of most  organisms o Most organisms function best within a specific range of environmental  temperatures  Physiological Responses o Acclimation is   Gradual,  Reversible, and  A physiological adjustment to an environmental change  o The ability to acclimate is generally related to the range of environmental  conditions a species naturally experiences o Among vertebrates,  Birds and mammals can tolerate the greatest temperature extremes because they are endotherms, while   Ectothermic reptiles can only tolerate a more limited range of  temperatures   Adjusting to Environmental Variability o Birds may adjust to cold by  Migrating to warmer regions (a behavioral response),  Growing heavier feathers (an anatomical response), or  Fluffing up their feathers to trap more heat (a physiological  response)  Anatomical Responses o Many organisms respond to environmental challenges with some type of  change in   Body shape and  Structure o Reversible change, such as a heavier fur coat in response to cold, is an  example of acclimation  Water o Water is essential to all life o For terrestrial organisms, the main water problem is drying out o Aquatic organisms  Are surrounded by water and  Face problems of water balance if their own solute concentration  does not match that of their surroundings  Inorganic Nutrients o The distribution and abundance of plants are often determined by the   Availability of inorganic nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus  and  The structure, pH and nutrient content of the soil  o In many aquatic ecosystems, the growth of algae, photosynthetic bacteria, and heterotrophic bacteria is often limited by levels of   Nitrogen and   Phosphorus   Other Aquatic Factors o Aquatic but not terrestrial ecosystems are more limited by  The levels of dissolved oxygen,  Salinity,  Currents, and  Tides  Other Terrestrial Factors o Terrestrial but not aquatic ecosystems are more limited by  Wind,  Storms, or   Fire   Fire Fighting  o Forestry service adopted policy of suppression of all forest fires o Led to backlog of flammable tinder materials, which is largely thought to  have led to the modern day mega wildfires we are experiencing  o $ 3,500,000,000/ year to fight fires    Disturbance o Disturbance­ disturbance alters the chemical or organismal components  of an ecosystem o Disturbance is a normal part of some ecosystems  Disturbances in Communities o Disturbances are episodes that damage biological communities, at least  temporarily, by  Destroying organisms and   Altering the availability of resources such as mineral nutrients and  water   Disturbances in Communities and Ecosystems o Disturbances may cause  The emergence of a previously unknown disease  Opportunities for other organisms to grow   Ecological Succession  o Disturbances may cause a gradual replacement by other species in a  process called ecological succession  o Primary succession begins  In a virtually lifeless area with no soil,  In place such as  The rubble left by a retreating glacier or   Lava flows   Ecological Succession  o Secondary succession occurs where a disturbance has  Destroyed an existing community but  Left the soil intact  o Examples of secondary succession are areas recovering from   Floods or   Fires   Ecosystem Ecology o    Energy flow  Is the passage of energy through the components of the ecosystem  Flows through and is ultimately lost o    Chemical cycling   Is the use and reuse of chemical elements such as carbon and  nitrogen within the ecosystem  Recycled within and between ecosystems  o Each day, Earth receives about 10^19 kcal of solar energy. o Most is absorbed, scattered, or reflected by the atmosphere or surface of  Earth   Primary Production  o The amount, or mass, of living organic material in an ecosystem is the  biomass o The rate at which an ecosystem’s producers convert solar energy to the  chemical energy stored in biomass  Is primary production  Yields about 165 billion tons of biomass per year  o Different ecosystems vary considerably in their primary production   Today’s Objectives o Explain how energy gets from the sun into a snake o Be able to interpret map range data and come up with hypotheses around  factors that might influence populations  o Compare and contrast adaptation vs. acclimation processes in organisms  o Explain the limitations in aquatic vs. terrestrial biomes o Explain scenarios where disturbance could be good or bad for the  functioning of an ecosystem o Explain the different levels of ecological succession o Explain the differences between energy flow and chemical cycling in an  ecosystem  3/24/16 Lecture Biomes, Nutrient Cycles and a little Human Evolution   Photosynthetic microorganisms contribute about 50% of Earth’s primary  productivity   Biomes o A biome is   A major terrestrial or aquatic life zone,  Characterized by  Vegetation type in terrestrial biomes or   The physical environment in aquatic biomes o Aquatic biomes  Occupy roughly 75% of Earth’s surface and   Are determined by their   Salinity and  Other physical factors   o Freshwater biomes  Have a salt concentration of less than 1% and  Include lakes, streams, rivers, and wetlands o Marine biomes  Typically have a salt concentration around 3% and  Include oceans, intertidal zones, coral reefs, and estuaries   Freshwater Biomes o Freshwater biomes  Cover less than 1% of Earth,  Contain a mere 0.01% of its water,  Harbor about 6% of all described species  Are used of  Drinking water  Crop irrigation  Sanitation, and  Industry  Freshwater biomes fall into two broad groups:  Standing water­ includes lakes and ponds  Flowing water­ such as rivers and streams   Aquatic Biome portioning of life  o In aquatic biomes, the communities of plants, algae, and animals are  distributed according to the   Depth of water and  Distance from shore  Aquatic Life Zones o The photic zone, named because light is available for photosynthesis,  includes  The shallow water near shore and  The upper layer of water away from shore o The aphotic zone  Is deeper and  Has light levels too low to support photosynthesis  o The benthic realm is   At the bottom of all aquatic biomes,  Made up of sand and organic and inorganic sediments, and  Occupied by communities of organisms that are collectively called  benthos   Roles of nutrients in aquatic biomes o The amount of phytoplankton growth aquatic environments is typically  regulated by the nutrients available   Nitrogen and   Phosphorus  Rivers and Streams o Rivers and streams  Are bodies of water flowing in one direction and  Generally support quite different communities of organisms than  lakes and ponds o  Source Streams  Cold  Clear  Swift  Lower Nutrients  o Downstream  Warmer  Turbid  Slow  High Nutrients  Biomes o Aquatic: marine o Aquatic: freshwater o Tropical forest o Temperature forest o Grassland o Desert o Taiga o Tundra   Terrestrial Biomes o Terrestrial ecosystems are grouped into biomes primarily on the basis of  their vegetation type o A climograph is a visual representation of the differences in   Precipitation and   Temperature ranges that characterize terrestrial biomes   The effect of climate on biome distribution  o Heated by the direct rays of the sun, air at the equator  Rises,  Then cools, forming clouds, and   Drops rain  o This largely explains why rain forests are concentrated in the tropics, the  region from the Tropic of Cancer to the Tropic of Capricorn   Chemical cycling in ecosystems o All life depends on recycling of chemicals o Nutrients acquired are ultimately released by a waste by living organisms o Death­ nutrients and chemicals that make up organisms are returned to  the environment through decomposers   Biogeochemical cycling  o Biogeochemical cycles involve  Biotic components and   Abiotic components from an abiotic reservoir where a chemical  accumulates or is stockpiled outside of living organisms  o Biogeochemical cycles can be:  Local or   Global o Three important biogeochemical cycles are:  Carbon  Phosphorus and   Nitrogen   The Carbon Cycle o Carbon, the major ingredient of all organic molecules,  Has an atmospheric reservoir and   Cycles globally o The cycling of carbon between the biotic and abiotic worlds is  accomplished mainly by the reciprocal metabolic processes of   Photosynthesis and   Cellular respiration   The Phosphorus Cycle o Organisms require phosphorus as an ingredient of   Nucleic acids,  Phospholipids, and   ATP o Phosphorus is also required as a mineral component of vertebrate bones  and teeth  o The phosphorus cycle does not have an atmospheric component   The Nitrogen Cycle o Nitrogen is   An ingredient of proteins and nucleic acids and   Essential to the structure and functioning of all organisms o Nitrogen has two abiotic reservoirs  The atmosphere and  The soil  o The process of nitrogen fixation converts gaseous N2 to nitrogen  compounds that plants can assimilate  o Most of the nitrogen available in natural ecosystems comes from biological fixation performed by two types of nitrogen­fixing bacteria   Some bacteria live symbiotically in the roots of certain species of  plants, supplying their hosts with a direct source of usable nitrogen   Free­living nitrogen­fixing bacteria in soil or water convert N2 to  ammonia, which then picks up another H+ to becomes ammonium  (NH4+)  What is a virus? o A virus is a noncellular particle that must infect a host cell, where it  reproduces  It typically subverts the cell’s machinery and directs it to produce  viral particles o Consist of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) contained within a protective protein capsid  o Viruses share some, but not all, characteristics of living organisms. o Viruses  Possess genetic material in the form of nucleic acids wrapped in a  protein coat,   Are not cellular, and   Cannot reproduce on their own   Bacteriophages o Bacteriophages, or phages, are viruses that attack bacteria  o Phages consist of a molecule of DNA, enclosed within an elaborate  structure made of proteins  o Phages have two reproductive cycles  In the lytic cycles  Many copies of the phage are produced within the bacterial  cell, and  Then the bacterium lyses (breaks open)  In the lysogenic cycle,  The phage DNA inserts into the bacterial chromosome and   The bacterium reproduces normally, copying the phage at  each cell division   Today’s Objectives o Explain where the majority of primary productivity is derived in aquatic and terrestrial biomes o Explain how aquatic and terrestrial biomes are characterized o Explain the various zones we see in an ocean setting and how they  interact in terms of energy flow and nutrient availability  o Explain how by just looking at the picture of the Smokies today you could  get a general idea of what expected rainfall in the environment might be  like o Explain the 3 important nutrient cycles we discussed today and where  their respective reservoirs are  o Explain why a virus is non living but might be considered by some as living o Explain the lytic and lysogenic cycles in bacteriophages 


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