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Intro to evolution week 7 notes

by: Courtney Parks

Intro to evolution week 7 notes CHEM 341

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Courtney Parks

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These are the notes from week 7
Modern Organic Chemistry I
Claire, Filloux
Class Notes
intro, intro to evolution, evolution, introduction to evolution, bz, bz 220, 220, Colorado State, Week 7
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Parks on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 341 at Colorado State University taught by Claire, Filloux in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Modern Organic Chemistry I in Chemistry at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 03/28/16
Week 7 Mutation and Migration  Mutation o Changes allele frequency, but not by much o Weak evolutionary force  Beneficial mutation and Selection o For E. Coli the bigger cell size is best, which took over and fixated to the bigger cell size  Deleterious mutations and selection o Balance  Selections removes copies as mutation creates them o Maintains stable frequency of deleterious alleles in a population  Maintains allelic diversity and genetic variation o Equilibrium frequency of deleterious allele depends on 1. Strength of selection (reducing frequency) 2. Mutation rate (increasing frequency) Mildly Highly Lethal deleterious deleterious dominant Low u Intermediate Allele rare u (exactly frequency (low frequency) mutation rate) High u Allele Common Intermediate u frequency o Equilibrium frequency of recessive deleterious allele a: recessive deleterious allele u: mutation rate A-a w: relative fitness genotypes s: selection coefficient (measures how strong selection is acting against allele) o Mutation-selection conclusions  Mutation is not a strong evolutionary force (but increases allelic diversity)  Selection fixes new beneficial mutations, removes deleterious mutations (decreases allelic diversity)  Mutation-selection balance maintains low levels of deleterious mutations (maintaining allelic diversity)  Migration= gene flow o The transfer of alleles from the gene pool of one population to another o Changes allele frequency within a population  Is a mechanism of evolution  Makes population more similar to each other genetically o Conclusions  Migration can change allelic frequencies in a population  Is a mechanism of evolution  Like mutation-selection balance, migration-selection balance maintains allelic diversity  Unless opposed by selection, migration homogenizes allele frequencies across populations  Migration can prevent populations from diverging into different species Genetic Drift: the role of chance in evolution  Genetic drift-random changes in allele frequencies within a population caused by chance o Random fixation of alleles o Loss of allelic diversity and heterozygosity o Results in non-adaptive evolution: evolution of traits that are not associated with an increase of fitness  Gamete sampling error o In small sample, actual frequencies may be different from expectation o Chance in which allele gets passed on  Genetic drift is strongest in small populations o Bigger changes in smaller populations  Founder effect o When a small # of individuals start a new population, allele frequencies are like to be different, by chance, from source population  Population bottleneck o “Surviving” populations doesn’t accurately represent total population  Genetic drift and heterozygosity o Heterozygosity declines because of fixation of one allele o Rate of change in heterozygosity depends on populations size o We can predict fixation based on starting point  Summary o Genetic drift changes allele frequencies and is a random evolutionary force o Genetic drift is strongest in small populations o Genetic drift results in the random fixation of alleles and loss of heterozygosity o Unlike selection, mutation, migration- genetic drift never maintains allelic diversity. It always decreases it.


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