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Exam Three Lecture Notes 3-22 and 3-24

by: Crystal Florman

Exam Three Lecture Notes 3-22 and 3-24 HUM 1022-08

Marketplace > University of Northern Iowa > Arts and Humanities > HUM 1022-08 > Exam Three Lecture Notes 3 22 and 3 24
Crystal Florman
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Rise and fall of absolutism in England
Humanities II: The Renaissance, Reformation, and Enlightenment
Mr. Micheal Prahl
Class Notes
absolutism, Baroque, James, charles, mary, William, William of Orange
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Crystal Florman on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HUM 1022-08 at University of Northern Iowa taught by Mr. Micheal Prahl in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Humanities II: The Renaissance, Reformation, and Enlightenment in Arts and Humanities at University of Northern Iowa.

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Date Created: 03/28/16
Humanities II Lecture Notes 3-22-2016 and 3-24-2016 Unit Three Absolutism  Both England and France were ruled by Divine Right and absolutism  The Kings are completely in charge of the state and the subjects- absolutism  Divine Right- the kings were put in their position by God- if God didn’t want them to be king they would have been born into a different family  Elizabeth I o Ruled at the end of the 16 century o Turned England into a completely protestant state by focusing on the Catholics  James VI o Became King of Scotland at the age of 1 o Became James I of England o Completely believes in divine right  Charles I o Also believes in the divine right of kings as well as absolutism o Parliament doesn’t really believe in all that stuff and they are much stronger than the king o 1642  Charles takes his troops into battle (the Cavaliers) against the Parliament’s troops (the Roundheads)  Start of the civil war o Civil war ends and Parliament puts him on trial and was convicted with treason against his people- then he was executed  Interregnum/ commonwealth/ protectorship- Parliament governing for the common good o Oliver Cromwell- leader of parliament, therefore England o Social Contract- give up some rights in order to be protected by the government  Magna Carta- cannot rule without the consent of those who you rule over  Thomas Hobbes o English lawyer- Political theorist o Published a book called Leviathan o Believed in absolutism and social contract theory o Splits Divine Right (bad) and absolutism (good) o There are two criteria for society to exist: Peace and Security o “Without society life would be short, nasty, and brudish.” – Leviathan o Give up some rights and live by certain rules to maintain peace and security Humanities II Lecture Notes 3-22-2016 and 3-24-2016  Charles II o Invited back to England by Parliament to rule England o Restoration period o Believes in absolute divine right monarchy  Won’t push parliament like his father, Charles I, did when he was King  James II o Charles II younger brother o Pushes parliament too far o 2 ndwife- Mary Beatrice of Modena- Northern Italy- Catholic  This means their children have to be raised catholic, but England is Protestant  They had a son- James Francis Edward Stuart- “Old Pretender” o 1 wife- Anne Hyde- Protestant  They had two daughters- Mary and Anne, but James is the true heir to the throne  Parliament asked Mary and her husband, William of Orange, to come and rule England- they are both Protestant  Glorious Revolution o The change of power from James II to Mary and William o Not very much fighting in England because all of it was in Ireland- a colony of England  James II leaves England to try to rule Ireland  Gets King Louis’ support from France  Leaves France with French troops and lands in Ireland  William fights back  William is determined to win to prove he is the true ruler of England  Marshall Schomberg- King William’s army commander o King James is Williams Father in law st  July 1 - William charges his men at James’ army and he gets away- the fighting was pretty much over by then  Mary and William can be King and Queen only if they agree that Parliament has the power to pass laws that affect all of England- brings and end to absolutism  Richard Talbot- French leader in Ireland  St. Ruth- army general- still has to prove himself  1691- Limerick Treaty signed bringing an end to the glorious revolution- there were 6 points to the treaty o Military Humanities II Lecture Notes 3-22-2016 and 3-24-2016  All cities in Ireland controlled by James must be given back to the English  Prisoners of war from both sides must be given back  If the people in Ireland did not want to live under William- free transport to France was provided o Civil  Religious toleration of Catholics in Ireland  Security of property and life of all Jacobites (followers of James)  Any Catholic in Ireland guaranteed property and life  Penal Laws- 1704 o No Catholic could buy land or inherit land from a Protestant through marriage or will- ex: 5 sons- 15 acres- each son only gets three acres  If the eldest son becomes baptized in the church of England he immediately inherits his family’s land o If you wanted to hold office in Ireland you had to convert from Catholicism to protestant o Regular clergy were banned from Ireland- secular clergy were okay  1728- new laws in Ireland o All Catholic schools were closed o Practicing Catholics no longer had a right to vote  The switch from absolutism to constitutional monarchy was a fairly easy transition in England, but not so much in France o Cardinal Richelieu- Louis XIII depended on him o Louis XVI will become an absolute monarch as he grows older  Longest reigning monarch in European history- 67 years  Expands Versailles o Duc de Sully- tried to get France back on financial track  Under Edict of Nantes- Huguenots were able to expand the economy  Louis takes away the Edict- 250,000 Huguenots left France- taking all the skill with them  Baroque artistic style o Involved movement, intensity, tension, and energy o Can be split into three different kinds of people who bought it  Counter Reformation Catholic Church commissioned artist for religious work  French Aristocrats  Bourgeois- mostly Dutch


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