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World History 1020, Week Six Notes

by: Liv Taylor

World History 1020, Week Six Notes HIST 1020 - 004

Marketplace > Auburn University > History > HIST 1020 - 004 > World History 1020 Week Six Notes
Liv Taylor
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About this Document

This set broadly covers imperialism
World History II
David C. Carter
Class Notes
Imperialism, World History
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Liv Taylor on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 - 004 at Auburn University taught by David C. Carter in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 03/28/16
March  21-­‐25,  2016  (Week  Six)   Dr.  David  Carter   World  History  II         Expansion  and  Nation  Building  in  the  Americas     -­‐  Manifest  destiny  was  the  idea  the  United  States  coined  to  deal  with  our  conquests   because  it  wasn’t  as  severe  or  negative  as  the  idea  of  “imperialism”     Canada   Canada  separated  peacefully  from  Britain  in  1867  but  the  new  nation  was  sharply   divided  between  English  and  French  speaking  citizens     -­‐  Even  though  citizens  were  often  bilingual,  the  Anglophone  and  Francophone   worlds  collided  (mainly  in  Quebec)   -­‐  When  America  purchased  Alaska,  Canada  was  uneasy  about  America’s  desire  to   expand  into  their  territory   -­‐  Territorial  expansion  promotes  unity  and  nationalism  among  the  nation  who’s   expanding   -­‐  The  government  used  state  resources  to  promote  settlement  in  the  West  as  well  as   diplomacy  and  treaties  to  reduce  conflict  with  Great  Plains  Indians   Canada  emerged  as  a  stronger  state  but  a  weaker  sense  of  nation     Latin  America   -­‐  By  the  middle  of  the  century,  Latin  American  countries  had  become  liberal   capitalist  societies  that  sought  territorial  expansion  but  with  major  differences   -­‐  The  power  was  in  the  hands  of  relatively  small  amount  of  creole  elites   -­‐  Unlike  North  America,  most  of  the  good  land  went  to  large  estate  holders  who   produced  export  crops  such  as  sugar  or  coffee  or  raised  cattle   -­‐  Latin  American  elites  held  a  monopoly  of  power  unlike  the  United  States   -­‐  Brazil  was  the  focal  point  of  expansion  and  economic  development     -­‐  Landed  elites  maintained  control  of  the  Brazilian  government  and  preserved  their   property  rights  even  while  abolishing  slavery,  which  shaped  territorial  expansion   -­‐  Brazilian  state  was  deliberately  exclusionary  and  placed  restrictions  on  suffrage   -­‐  The  state  allocated  huge  concessions  to  capitalists  to  extract  rubber  latex  from  the   Amazon  River   -­‐  The  rubber  enterprise  went  bust  by  the  turn  of  the  century  because  of  the   international  competition     Imperialism  and  its  Discontents  (WTWA  619-­‐629,  638-­‐643)     -­‐  The  Balkan  Islands  retaliate  to  imperialism  during  WWI   -­‐  There  was  unification  in  Germany  but  discontents  in  France  and  Britain   -­‐  To  complete  German  unification,  Bismarck  started  the  Franco-­‐Prussian  War,  which   thereby  destabilized  France   -­‐  Great  Britain  struggled  with  Irish  nationalism,  which  was  only  increased  by  the   Irish  Potato  Famine   -­‐  To  strengthen  nationalism,  Britain  awarded  political  rights  to  all  men  and  women     -­‐  The  reign  of  Queen  Victoria  helped  to  unify  all  members  of  Great  Britain   -­‐  Although  unified,  the  U.S.  and  Germany  overtook  Britain  in  terms  of  world  share  of   industrial  output  during  the  Second  Industrial  Revolution  (1850)  and  Japan  became   an  industrial  power  after  1880     Nations  and  Empires  (1850-­‐1914)   -­‐  The  second  industrial  revolution  swept  through  the  industrial  sector  of  the  world   economy  after  1850   -­‐  Japan  became  an  industrial  power  after  1880  (seemed  to  come  out  of  no  where  i.e.   Russo-­‐Japanese  war)   -­‐  American  warships  opened  up  Japan  after  their  many  years  of  isolation  and   thereby  establish  itself  as  an  imperial  power  because  of  the  way  it  harnessed   industrial  change   -­‐  Japan  has  to  play  industrial  catch  up  but  also  has  certain  advantages  like  no  trial   and  error   -­‐  The  U.S.  and  Germany  overtook  Britain  in  terms  of  world  share  of  industrial  output   -­‐  Great  Britain  was  still  incredibly  important  imperial  nation,  it  was  just  challenged   -­‐  New  materials,  technologies,  and  business  practices   -­‐  Great  Britain,  the  U.S.  and  Germany  have  iron,  which  caused  steel  production  to   soar   -­‐  Chemicals,  oil  and  pharmaceuticals  became  major  industries,  but  some  materials   are  rare  and  rich  in  arbitrary  places  (hence  imperialism)   -­‐  Places  like  Great  Britain,  the  U.S.  and  Russia  have  good  natural  resource   endowment,  which  equals  power   -­‐  Mass  transportation  vehicles  such  as  automobiles  and  trolleys  emerged  (but  most   importantly  railroads)  that  ultimately  moved  into  aviation  by  “making  the  world   smaller”   -­‐  Electricity,  a  cheap  source  of  energy,  became  widely  used   -­‐  While  the  First  Industrial  Revolution  relied  on  steam,  the  Second  Industrial   Revolution  relied  on  electricity   -­‐  Science  and  industry  became  firmly  wedded     -­‐  German  industrialists  pioneered  research  laboratories  staffed  by  university-­‐ trained  chemists  and  physicists  and  the  United  States  soon  followed  (Germans   remained  in  the  forefront  of  education)   -­‐  Nexus  is  a  term  used  when  business,  military  and  intellectual  powers  are  all   interconnected  leading  to  giant  integrated  firms  emerging   -­‐  In  Europe  and  the  U.S.,  limited-­‐liability  joint  –stock  companies  became  major   providers  of  funds  for  business  activity,  meaning,  shareholders  were  no  longer   liable  for  a  firm’s  debt   -­‐  U.S.  Steel,  Standard  Oil,  Imperial  Chemical  Industries,  and  Krupp  were  a  few   examples  of  these  huge  firms   -­‐  There  were  concerns  about  monopolistic  tendencies  and  power  of  these   companies  especially  in  the  U.S.   -­‐  Integration  of  the  world  economy  emerged  as  Europe  and  the  U.S.  increased   exports  and  their  need  to  control  the  flow  of  tropical  resources  grew   -­‐  Industries  now  needed  access  to  rubber,  copper,  oil,  and  bauxite,  more  often  found   in  tropical  climates  leading  the  Congo  to  replace  Brazil  in  the  rubber  industry   (hence  imperialism  in  Africa)   -­‐  Europe  and  the  U.S.  possessed  larger  pools  of  capital  for  overseas  investment,  but   Britain  remained  the  world’s  leading  investor,  sending  one-­‐tenth  of  its  annual   income  overseas   -­‐  But  after  WWI,  the  United  States  took  the  title  of  the  world’s  leading  investor   -­‐  The  enlarged  world  economy  needed  labor  in  certain  regions  to  raise  crops,  work   in  mines,  or  staff  factories,  which  led  to  movements  in  labor  and  technology  and   even  voluntary  migration   -­‐  For  example,  Indian  workers  moved  the  Caribbean,  Mauritius,  Fiji  and  South  Africa   because  of  the  work  and  because  it  was  a  time  of  easy  migration  and  one  of  the   safest  times  to  migrate  people   -­‐  Also  Chinese  laborers  moved  to  California  and  Cuba  and  Irish,  Poles  Jews  Italians   and  Greeks  flocked  to  North  America  and  South  America   -­‐  These  immigrants  had  “pushes”  and  “pulls”   -­‐  An  example  of  a  “push”  would  be  Irish  emigrants  leaving  because  of  starvation  due   to  the  famine,  while  “pulls”  are  the  lights  at  the  end  of  the  tunnel  for  immigrants,  for   example,  the  promise  of  American  Dream,  etc.   -­‐  Irish  people  were  seen  as  their  own  racial  category  and  were  viewed  very   negatively  in  the  19  century  while  people  from  the  United  Kingdom  and   Scandinavia  were  desirable,  because  the  more  east  and  south  you  went,  the  people   became  more  negative   -­‐  New  technologies  in  warfare  and  transportation  increased  European  dominance,   like  steam-­‐powered  gunboats  and  breech,  padding  riffles  that  opened  new   territories  for  exploitation   -­‐  Railroad  facilitated  the  movement  of  peoples  and  goods  to  coastal  ports   -­‐  The  dominance  of  steam  and  industrialism  was  shown  when  the  Great  White  Navy   up  against  the  Spanish  navy  still  reliant  on  wooden  sailing  ships  and  were  ultimately   destroyed,  implying  that  whoever  has  the  technological  edge  are  usually  the  top   dogs   -­‐  Steamships  allowed  for  more  efficient  ocean  and  river  travel  and  the  Suez  Canal   decreased  the  amount  of  time  needed  to  travel  from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Indian  Ocean   -­‐  Telegraph  cables  allowed  for  instant  communication,  which  meant  there  was  less   time  for  calming  down,  level-­‐headedness,  etc.   -­‐  There  was  a  critical  need  to  mobilize  troops  using  the  railroads   -­‐  These  technologies  doing  all  of  these  positive  things  are  also  heightening  war   tactics  and  war  itself   -­‐  One  of  the  most  important  shifts  in  the  natural  sciences  came  from  the  travels  of   British  scientist  Charles  Darwin   -­‐  He  traveled  to  Latin  America  as  a  ships’  naturalist  and  developed  the  theory  of   evolution  in  his  text  Origin  of  the  Species   -­‐  “Survival  of  he  fittest”  gets  taken  out  of  context  by  social  scientists  to  justify   prejudices  and  racism   -­‐  Charles  Darwin  and  natural  selection  was  used  to  justify  race-­‐based  discrimination   -­‐  European  scientists,  laypeople,  clergy  and  anthropologists  began  debating  the   source  of  what  they  perceived  to  be  European  superiority  and  Social  Darwinism   emerged  to  justify  white  supremacy,  class  superiority,  etc.   -­‐  By  this,  Eugenics  became  a  popular  idea,  which  eventually  led  to  Hitler’s  Third   Reich        


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