World History 1020, Week Six Notes
World History 1020, Week Six Notes HIST 1020 - 004
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Liv Taylor on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 - 004 at Auburn University taught by David C. Carter in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
March 21-‐25, 2016 (Week Six) Dr. David Carter World History II Expansion and Nation Building in the Americas -‐ Manifest destiny was the idea the United States coined to deal with our conquests because it wasn’t as severe or negative as the idea of “imperialism” Canada Canada separated peacefully from Britain in 1867 but the new nation was sharply divided between English and French speaking citizens -‐ Even though citizens were often bilingual, the Anglophone and Francophone worlds collided (mainly in Quebec) -‐ When America purchased Alaska, Canada was uneasy about America’s desire to expand into their territory -‐ Territorial expansion promotes unity and nationalism among the nation who’s expanding -‐ The government used state resources to promote settlement in the West as well as diplomacy and treaties to reduce conflict with Great Plains Indians Canada emerged as a stronger state but a weaker sense of nation Latin America -‐ By the middle of the century, Latin American countries had become liberal capitalist societies that sought territorial expansion but with major differences -‐ The power was in the hands of relatively small amount of creole elites -‐ Unlike North America, most of the good land went to large estate holders who produced export crops such as sugar or coffee or raised cattle -‐ Latin American elites held a monopoly of power unlike the United States -‐ Brazil was the focal point of expansion and economic development -‐ Landed elites maintained control of the Brazilian government and preserved their property rights even while abolishing slavery, which shaped territorial expansion -‐ Brazilian state was deliberately exclusionary and placed restrictions on suffrage -‐ The state allocated huge concessions to capitalists to extract rubber latex from the Amazon River -‐ The rubber enterprise went bust by the turn of the century because of the international competition Imperialism and its Discontents (WTWA 619-‐629, 638-‐643) -‐ The Balkan Islands retaliate to imperialism during WWI -‐ There was unification in Germany but discontents in France and Britain -‐ To complete German unification, Bismarck started the Franco-‐Prussian War, which thereby destabilized France -‐ Great Britain struggled with Irish nationalism, which was only increased by the Irish Potato Famine -‐ To strengthen nationalism, Britain awarded political rights to all men and women -‐ The reign of Queen Victoria helped to unify all members of Great Britain -‐ Although unified, the U.S. and Germany overtook Britain in terms of world share of industrial output during the Second Industrial Revolution (1850) and Japan became an industrial power after 1880 Nations and Empires (1850-‐1914) -‐ The second industrial revolution swept through the industrial sector of the world economy after 1850 -‐ Japan became an industrial power after 1880 (seemed to come out of no where i.e. Russo-‐Japanese war) -‐ American warships opened up Japan after their many years of isolation and thereby establish itself as an imperial power because of the way it harnessed industrial change -‐ Japan has to play industrial catch up but also has certain advantages like no trial and error -‐ The U.S. and Germany overtook Britain in terms of world share of industrial output -‐ Great Britain was still incredibly important imperial nation, it was just challenged -‐ New materials, technologies, and business practices -‐ Great Britain, the U.S. and Germany have iron, which caused steel production to soar -‐ Chemicals, oil and pharmaceuticals became major industries, but some materials are rare and rich in arbitrary places (hence imperialism) -‐ Places like Great Britain, the U.S. and Russia have good natural resource endowment, which equals power -‐ Mass transportation vehicles such as automobiles and trolleys emerged (but most importantly railroads) that ultimately moved into aviation by “making the world smaller” -‐ Electricity, a cheap source of energy, became widely used -‐ While the First Industrial Revolution relied on steam, the Second Industrial Revolution relied on electricity -‐ Science and industry became firmly wedded -‐ German industrialists pioneered research laboratories staffed by university-‐ trained chemists and physicists and the United States soon followed (Germans remained in the forefront of education) -‐ Nexus is a term used when business, military and intellectual powers are all interconnected leading to giant integrated firms emerging -‐ In Europe and the U.S., limited-‐liability joint –stock companies became major providers of funds for business activity, meaning, shareholders were no longer liable for a firm’s debt -‐ U.S. Steel, Standard Oil, Imperial Chemical Industries, and Krupp were a few examples of these huge firms -‐ There were concerns about monopolistic tendencies and power of these companies especially in the U.S. -‐ Integration of the world economy emerged as Europe and the U.S. increased exports and their need to control the flow of tropical resources grew -‐ Industries now needed access to rubber, copper, oil, and bauxite, more often found in tropical climates leading the Congo to replace Brazil in the rubber industry (hence imperialism in Africa) -‐ Europe and the U.S. possessed larger pools of capital for overseas investment, but Britain remained the world’s leading investor, sending one-‐tenth of its annual income overseas -‐ But after WWI, the United States took the title of the world’s leading investor -‐ The enlarged world economy needed labor in certain regions to raise crops, work in mines, or staff factories, which led to movements in labor and technology and even voluntary migration -‐ For example, Indian workers moved the Caribbean, Mauritius, Fiji and South Africa because of the work and because it was a time of easy migration and one of the safest times to migrate people -‐ Also Chinese laborers moved to California and Cuba and Irish, Poles Jews Italians and Greeks flocked to North America and South America -‐ These immigrants had “pushes” and “pulls” -‐ An example of a “push” would be Irish emigrants leaving because of starvation due to the famine, while “pulls” are the lights at the end of the tunnel for immigrants, for example, the promise of American Dream, etc. -‐ Irish people were seen as their own racial category and were viewed very negatively in the 19 century while people from the United Kingdom and Scandinavia were desirable, because the more east and south you went, the people became more negative -‐ New technologies in warfare and transportation increased European dominance, like steam-‐powered gunboats and breech, padding riffles that opened new territories for exploitation -‐ Railroad facilitated the movement of peoples and goods to coastal ports -‐ The dominance of steam and industrialism was shown when the Great White Navy up against the Spanish navy still reliant on wooden sailing ships and were ultimately destroyed, implying that whoever has the technological edge are usually the top dogs -‐ Steamships allowed for more efficient ocean and river travel and the Suez Canal decreased the amount of time needed to travel from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean -‐ Telegraph cables allowed for instant communication, which meant there was less time for calming down, level-‐headedness, etc. -‐ There was a critical need to mobilize troops using the railroads -‐ These technologies doing all of these positive things are also heightening war tactics and war itself -‐ One of the most important shifts in the natural sciences came from the travels of British scientist Charles Darwin -‐ He traveled to Latin America as a ships’ naturalist and developed the theory of evolution in his text Origin of the Species -‐ “Survival of he fittest” gets taken out of context by social scientists to justify prejudices and racism -‐ Charles Darwin and natural selection was used to justify race-‐based discrimination -‐ European scientists, laypeople, clergy and anthropologists began debating the source of what they perceived to be European superiority and Social Darwinism emerged to justify white supremacy, class superiority, etc. -‐ By this, Eugenics became a popular idea, which eventually led to Hitler’s Third Reich