New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Anatomy and Physiology

by: Meaghan Raw

Anatomy and Physiology BIOH 113 - 01

Meaghan Raw
GPA 3.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover the last week of notes from class.
Human Form and Function II
Heather Dawn Labbe (P)
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology, A&P
25 ?




Popular in Human Form and Function II

Popular in Biological Sciences

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meaghan Raw on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOH 113 - 01 at University of Montana taught by Heather Dawn Labbe (P) in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Human Form and Function II in Biological Sciences at University of Montana.


Reviews for Anatomy and Physiology


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/28/16
BIOH 113 Chapter 22: The Respiratory System - The respiratory system acts with the cardiovascular system to bring oxygen to the body and removes carbon dioxide from the body Major Functions: - To supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide - Respiration: o Pulmonary ventilation- air moving into and out of the lungs o External respiration- gas exchange between the lungs and blood o Transport- transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and tissues o Internal respiration- gas exchange between systemic blood vessels and tissues Classification: - Structural o Upper respiratory o Lower respiratory - Functional o Conducting zone o Respiratory zone Structures: - Upper respiratory o All structures above the vocal chords o Mouth, nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx - Lower respiratory o Trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs Functions: - Respiratory zone o Site of gas exchange o Consists of bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli - Conducting zone o Provides rigid conduits for air to reach the sites of gas exchange o Includes the nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, and the trachea Important transitions within the airways as they get smaller: - Cartilage support structures change - Epithelium types change - Amount f smooth muscle increases Nose and Nasal Cavity: Nose: - The only externally visible part of the respiratory system - Functions: o Provides an airway for respiration o Moistens and warms entering air o Filters air clearing it of debris o Houses olfactory receptors Nasal Cavity: - Lies in and posterior to the externa nose - Divided by a midline septum - Opens posteriorly into the nasopharynx via internal nares - Cranial bones form the roof - The floor is composed of hard and soft palates - Superior, medial, and inferior conchae o Protrude medially from lateral walls o Increase mucosal area o Enhance air turbulence and help to filter air - Respiratory mucosa: o Lines balance of the nasal cavity o Glands secrete mucus containing lysozyme and defensins to help destroy bacteria - Inspired air: o Humidified by the high water content in the nasal cavity o Warmed by rich plexuses of capillaries Paranasal Sinuses: - Sinuses in bones that surround the nasal cavity - Sinuses lighten the skull and help to warm and moisten the air Pharynx: - Funnel shaped tube of skeletal muscle that connects to the: o Nasal cavity and mouth superiorly o Larynx and esophagus inferiorly - Divided into three regions: o Nasopharynx o Oropharynx o Laryngopharynx Nasopharynx: - Lies posterior to the nasal cavity, inferior to the sphenoid, and superior to the level of the soft palate - Strictly an air passageway - Pseudostratified columnar epithelium - Closes during swallowing - Pharyngeal tonsils lie high on the posterior wall - Pharyngotympanic (auditory) tubes open into the lateral walls Oropharynx: - Extends inferiorly from the level of the soft palate to the epiglottis - Serves as a common passageway for food and air - Stratified squamous epithelium - Palatine tonsils lie in the lateral walls - Lingual tonsil covers the base of the tongue Laryngopharynx: - Serves as a common passageway for food and air - Lies posterior to the upright epiglottis - Extends to the larynx, where respiratory and digestive pathways diverge - Stratified squamous epithelium Larynx: - Voice box - Attaches to the hyoid bone and pens into the laryngopharynx superiorly - Continuous with the trachea posteriorly - Three functions: o Provide a patent airway o Act as a switching mechanism to route air and food into the proper channels o Functions in voice production Structure and Function: - 9 cartilage types - Vestibular folds- play no part in the voice; help to close the glottis - Vocal folds- vibrate as air goes by Vocal Production: - Speech: intermittent release of expired air while opening and closing the glottis - Pitch: determined by the length and tension of the vocal chords - Loudness: depends on the force at which the air rushes across the vocal chords - The pharynx resonates, amplifies, and enhances sound quality - Sound is shaped into language by the action of the pharynx, tongue, soft palate, and lips Trachea: - Flexible and mobile tube extending from the larynx into the mediastinum - Composed of three layers o Mucosa- made up of goblet cells and ciliated epithelium o Submucosa- connective tissue deep to the mucosa o Adventitia- outermost layer made of C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage Bronchi: - The carina of the last tracheal cartilage marks the end f the trachea and the beginning of the right and left bronchi - Air reaching the bronchi is saturated with water vapor and warm and cleansed - Bronchi sub divide into secondary bronchi with each supplying a lobe of the lung - There are 23 orders of branching in the lungs Bronchial Tree: - Tissue walls mimic that of the trachea - Bronchioles: o Consist of simple cuboidal and simple columnar epithelium o Complete layer of circular smooth muscle o Lack cartilage support and mucus producing cells o Last structure of the conducting zone is the terminal bronchiole Respiratory Zone: - Defined by the presence of alveoli - Begins as terminal bronchioles - Respiratory bronchioles lead to alveolar ducts then to terminal clusters of alveolar sacs composed of alveoli o Alveoli:  Provide surface area for gas exchange  Make up most of the lungs volume  Approximately 300 million of them Respiratory Membrane: - Air blood barrier o Alveolar and capillary walls - Alveolar Walls o Single layer of type one epithelial cells o Permit gas exchange by simple diffusion o Secrete angiotensin converting enzyme o Type 2 secretes surfactant - Alveoli o Type one squamous pneumonocytes  Make up the walls of alveoli  Together with the capillaries make up the blood air barrier o Type two granular pneumonocytes  Secrete surfactant  Reduce surface tension o Surrounded by fine elastic fibers o Contain open pores that:  Connect adjacent alveoli  Allow air pressure throughout the lung to be equalized o House macrophages that keep alveolar surfaces sterile Lungs: Anatomy: - Lungs occupy all of the thoracic cavity except the mediastinum - Root- site of vascular and bronchial attachments - Costal surface- anterior, lateral, and posterior surfaces in contact with the ribs - Apex- narrow superior tip - Base- inferior surface that rests on the diaphragm - Hilus- indentation that contains pulmonary and systemic blood vessels - Cardiac notch- cavity that accommodates that heart - Left lung- separated into upper and lower lobes by the oblique fissure - Right lung- separated into three lobes by the oblique and horizontal fissures Blood Supply: - Lungs are perfused by two circulations o Pulmonary o Bronchial - Pulmonary arteries o Supply the blood to by oxygenated o Branch profusely o Feed into capillary network surrounding alveoli - Pulmonary veins o Carry oxygenated blood from the respiratory zones to the heart Pleurae: - Thin double layered serosa - Parietal pleura: o Cover the thoracic wall and the superior face of the diaphragm o Continues around the heart and between the lungs - Visceral pleura: o Covers externa lung surface o Divides the thoracic cavity into three chambers  A central mediastinum  Two lateral compartments each containing a lung - Functions: o Produces a serous fluid which has two major roles  Reducing friction between the cavity wall and the organ  Creates surface which keeps the lungs inflated Pulmonary Ventilation: - A mechanical process that depends on volume changes in the thoracic cavity - Volume changes lead to pressure changes which lead to the flow of gases to equalize pressure Breathing: - Consists of two phases: o Inspiration- air flows into the lungs o Expiration- gases exit the lungs Inspiration: - The diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract and rib cage rises - Intrapulmonary volume increases - Intrapulmonary pressure drops below atmospheric pressure - Air flows into the lungs and down its pressure gradient until intrapulmonary pressure = atmospheric pressure Expiration: - Inspiratory muscles relax and the rib cage descends passively - Thoracic cavity volume decreases - Elastic lungs recoil passively and intrapulmonary volume drops - Gases flow out of the lungs down the pressure gradient until intrapulmonary pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure Factors Affecting Ventilation: - Airway resistance - Alveolar surface tension - Lung compliance Respiratory Volumes: - Tidal volume o Air that moves into and out of the lungs with each breath - Inspiratory reserve volume o Air that can be inspired forcibly beyond tidal volume - Expiratory volume o Air that can be evacuated from the lungs after a tidal expiration - Residual volume o Air left in the lungs after strenuous expiration Respiratory Capacity: - Inspiratory o Total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration - Functional Residual o Amount of air that remains in the lungs after a tidal expiration - Vital o The total amount of exchangeable air - Total lung o Sum of all the lung volumes Dead Space: Anatomical: - Volume of conducting respiratory passageways Alveolar: - Alveoli that cease to act in gas exchange due to collapse or obstruction Total: - Sum of anatomical and alveolar dead spaces Respiration: External: - Factors influencing the movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide across the respiratory membrane o Partial pressure gradients and gas solubility o Matching of alveolar ventilation and pulmonary blood perfusion o Structural characteristics of the respiratory membrane Internal: - The factors promoting gas exchange between the systemic capillaries and tissue cells are the same as those acting in the lungs o Partial pressure and diffusion gradients are reversed


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.