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by: Jillian O'Connor
Jillian O'Connor
GPA 3.21
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About this Document

Covers Autism and Communication Disorders
Understanding and Accommodating Students with Exceptionalities
Joyce Brandes
Class Notes




Popular in Understanding and Accommodating Students with Exceptionalities

Popular in Special Education

This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jillian O'Connor on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EDSP 3054 at University of Oklahoma taught by Joyce Brandes in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Understanding and Accommodating Students with Exceptionalities in Special Education at University of Oklahoma.


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Date Created: 03/28/16
Autism- auto(self) -Considered a communication disorder -Autism- speech difficulty vs. Aspergers (top of the spectrum, high functioning autism)- acceptable speech but they don't know how to use it appropriately (language speech) -Repetitive behavior -Fixated on things -Need a routine/structure- when there are changes, they become scared and do things to help calm down -play with their hands -be direct when changing the routine -Genetic -Trouble showing emotions -Michelangelo was autistic -Do not like spontaneous activity/change -Comfort food -Kim Peak- considered to be classic autism personality -Rain Man Movie -Savant History 1943- Kanner coined "autism"- meaning self 1967- "refrigerator mothers"- cold and uncaring 2001- neurological disorder Definition -are characterized by severe and pervasive impairment in several areas of development reciprocal social interaction skills, communication skills, or the presence of stereotyped behavior, interests, and activities -before three years of age -lifelong disability -vary widely in presentation and severity Image 1.png ¬Tread of Impairments -primarily a communication disorder -behavior is a type of communication (communication-behavior) -social interaction is part of communication Pervasive Developmental Disorders 1. Autism (ASD) 2. Ret's Disorder -unique to females, rings her hands 3. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD) -disintegration in skills 4. Asperger Syndrome (AS) - 5. Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) -not fitting any of the labels Incidence 1. ~1-1.5 million in U.S with ASD 2. Approximately 1/110 births in U.S (overall = 1/91; boys= 1/58) -boys are more susceptible to a disability -learning how to diagnose it better 3. 4 males: 1 female 4. Consistent around the globe Treatments 1. Psychoanalytic-Based therapy 2. Medically-based treatment 3. Behavioral interventions 4. Educational interventions -General strategies: consistency across all environments, integrate all therapies, safe place/person (teacher, counselor), structure and routine (theory of mind-difficult to imagine what comes next), facilitated communication, never call a student a kid, never say a student is throwing a fit -Specific strategies: ABA (adaptive behavior analysis), TEACCH (communication strategy), flip book Chapter 6: Understanding Students with Communication Disorders Defining Communication Disorders -Entails receiving, understanding and expressing information, feelings and ideas -Speech disorder: refers to the difficulty in producing sounds -Language disorder: refers to difficulty in receiving, understanding, and formulating ideas and information -Two forms of language: expressive and receptive -Expressive- what they give -Receptive- what they receive -Cultural diversity: -Difference does not always mean disorder -Dialects are various forms of language Prevalence of Communication Disorders -Of all students receiving special education services, about 19% were classified as having a speech-language disability -this does not include students who receive special services as a secondary service -87% of students classified as having a communication disorder are in the general education classroom Typical Development -Speech: Oral expression of language -Language: Structured, shared, rule-governed, symbolic system for communicating -Phonology (phonemes): sound system (sound unit) -Morphology (morphemes): word forms (meaning unit) -Syntax: Word order and sentence structure -Semantics: Word and sentence meanings -Pragmatics: Use of communication contexts -Social interactions theories: Communication skills through social interactions Speech Disorders -Articulation: Production of individualor sequenced sounds -substitions, omissions, additions, distortions -Apraxia of speech: Motor speech disorder affecting the planning the speech -Voice disorders: Pitch, duration, intensity, resonance, -hyponasality, hypernasality -Fluency disorders: Interruptions in the flow of speaking -stuttering Language Impairments -Language disorders may be receptive, expressive, or both -Language disorders may be related to another disability or may be a specific language impairment -Comorbid- more than one disability -Phonological disorders: difficulty in discriminating differences in speech sounds or sound segments -Morphological difficulties: problem using the structure of words to get or give information -Syntactical errors: problems involving word order, incorrect structure, misuse of negatives, or omitting structures -Semantic disorders: problems using words singly or together in sentences -Pragmatic disorders: problems in the social use of language Determining the Causes -Organic: caused by an identifiable problem in the neuromuscular mechanism -Functional:those with no identifiable origin -Congenital: present at birth -Acquired: occurs after birth Evaluating Students with Communication Disorders -Speech assessment -Articulation, voice, fluency -Language assessments -Multicultural considerations -bilingual, bidialectual Related Services -Collaborations -parents, pathologist, student, doctor -Roles of speech-language pathologists -speech therapy -Four types of activities that speech-language pathologists engage in while working in schools: -directs services to students -indirect services to implement students' education programs -indirect services to support students in general education curriculum -activities as members of the community of educators Supplementary Aids and Services -Assistive Technology includes any piece of equipment, commericial or handmade, that assists an individual to perform various functions, such as communication -No/Low Tech- typically low or no cost and not electronic: highlighter, sticky note, book holder -Mid Tech- moderately priced, easy to use: adapted keyboard, audio book, tape recorder -High Tech- more expensive, may need more training to use: software program, talking calculator, computerized communication devices Augmentative and Alternative Communication -AAC systems are physical objects that consist of integrated components to support the communication abilities of individuals who cannot meet their communication needs through speaking -Communication books, voice output devices, computers, language boards Planning for UDL -Vary the ways in which the teacher communicates -use of audio and text formats -visual representations with verbal information -graphics, graphic organizers, and controlled vocabulary -Vary the ways that students demonstrate their knowledge -Asking a student to convert a written report to a Powerpoint presentation -Supplementing a demonstration with visual supports -Using a taped oral report -Performing a skit solo or with others Other Educational Needs -Building Social Relationships -May need to be taught specific social skills -May need support to initiate and sustain interactions because of their limited expressive language -Social stories -Describe social concepts, skills, or situations by providing information about the situation and people involved Instructional Strategies: Early Childhood -Facilitative Language Strategies -Focused contrast, modeling, events casts, open questions, expansions, recasts, redirects and prompted initiations Instructional Strategies: Elementary and Middle School -Graphic Organizer Modifications -Support transitions to reading and writing -Use of graphic organizers to develop literacy skills -Provide a visual representation in an organized framework -Can be hand-drawn or computer generated Instructional Strategies: High School -AAC Systems -include sign language; picture communication books, boards, or cards; and electronic communication devices -learning to use AAC systems takes a team effort -AAC instructional strategies should focus on teaching communication rather than teaching the student to use AAC -System for Augmenting Language (SAL) Measuring Students' Progress -Progress in the general curriculum data-based performance modification procedure, usually curriculum-based measurement -Other educational needs can be assessed through ecological inventories Making Accommodations for Assessment -Accommodations: -No accommodations -Additional time -Access to a word processor/computer software -Present information in a manner that assists the student's comprehension -If the student has difficulty expressing him/her, he/she may benefit from a format that does not require long verbal or written output -Format should complement the student's most common means of expression


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