Popular in Understanding and Accommodating Students with Exceptionalities
Popular in Special Education
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jillian O'Connor on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EDSP 3054 at University of Oklahoma taught by Joyce Brandes in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Understanding and Accommodating Students with Exceptionalities in Special Education at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
Culture -same basic values Micro-culture -culture within a culture -Ex: special education, religion, Native Americans Cultural Responsiveness -Instruction and Assessment -cognitive, linguistic, solid assets Diversity Theories -Genetic Deficit -born with that puts you at a disadvantage -Ex: any other race but white -Cultural Deficit -Ex: low socio-economic, language, not having books in the home -Cultural Difference -Different but doesn't put people at a disadvantage -Ex: father answers for the mother at meetings Disproportionate Representation -Risk ratio -how many people from an ethnic group/class will be in special ed. compared to the rest of the population -inclusion Poverty -less than $22,000 annually for a family of 4 -36% has to do with African Americans and Hispanics- three times more likely to end up in poverty -69% of students live with a single parent -17% of students don't have health insurance -Idea Part C -21% of students don't have enough food Family- 2 or more people who regard themselves as a family and do things together Cultural Pluralism -Small group in large society -cultured identity -values -practices -6 beliefs/assumptions of cultural pluralism Eligibility Special Education Process 1. Referral- written request for evaluation, teacher/parent can make one 2. Evaluation 3. Eligibility- determined if disability is under IDEA -initiating the referral, assessing the student eligibility and edcational need, developing the IEP, LRE 4. IEP 5. Placement 6. Instruction 7. Annual Review Initiate the Referral -Severe disabilities likely to be identified prior to elementary school -Milder disabilities are almost always referred through the general education teacher -Parental referral -Process is in-house -Pre-referral team/child study/intervention team/multi-disciplinary team Most common adaptations -modify the curriculum -change seating arrangement -adjust the length/difficulty of assignments What determines eligibility? -child meets criteria in IDEA -There is a need for special education services A Option of Developmental Delay -Ages 3-9 -50% delay in one area or 25% delay in two or more areas: -Cognitive, motor, communication, adaptive, social/emotional Assessments -Norm-referenced: compared to other students -Criterion-referenced: measure pre-determined criteria (rubric) -Curriculum-referenced: measures student's performance within the curriculum Early Intervention Early Intervention- Part C of IDEA Arena Assessment- observe child in their home -Natural environments Head Start/Early Head Start-Sooner Start -Children 3-5 -Families, Education, Health and Nutrition, Social Services IFSP -Individual Family Service Plan -Revolves around family -Includes outcomes targeted for the family -Focuses on natural environments -Includes activities undertaken with multiple agencies -Names a service coordinator to help the family during the development Response to Intervention Discrepancy Model -Occurs when intellectual ability does not match achievement -Usually 1 standard deviation -two below-70 -two above-130 (gift talented) Criticism -Biased -Wait to fail -Varies by state Response to Intervention -Focuses on high quality, scientifically-based instruction while monitoring student progress -Multi-step -Allows for early intervention for all students who may or may not have an unidentified disability -Laws Addressing RTI: ESEA, IDEA (2004) Essential Components -Scientific-research based instruction -Universal Screening -Multiple Tiers -Collaborative Approach Not: -Special seating -Shortened assignments -Parent-teacher conferences -Suspension -Retention -"More of the same" general education setting Response To Intervention Primary Tier-80% -Occurs in the general education classroom -Provide research-based instruction -Establish instructional goals -Participate in regular progress monitoring -Last 8-20 weeks (in Oklahoma) -Ex of differentiated instruction: small groups, varied instructional materials, different ways of presenting the same content -Purpose: identify the needs of every student -flexible grouping, different instructional materials, different ways of presenting the same content Intervention -Secondary supplements to the core curriculum. Within intervention, students receive additional research based instruction that is: -narrower in focus -short term -small groups Secondary Tier (15%) -Occurs with general education teacher and special education teacher -Identify problems -Analyze problems -Develop independent intervention -Evaluate and modify independent intervention as necessary -Last 8-20 weeks -Contains small group instruction 1:5 student-teacher ratio Interventions -short term -consistently scheduled -small groups -research-based, feasible for all educators to use, accurately target student's area(s) of difficulty -Supplemental to core curriculum -occur in general education classroom -do not replace core instruction Tertiary Tier (5%) -Special Education Teacher -Students must have a disability that "adversely affects educational performance" -Individualized instruction should be in even smaller groups 1:3 -Students in this tier have not responded to interventions in the Primary or Secondary Tiers Interventions -short term -supplemental to core classroom instruction -research based -highly explicit, systematic interventions closely observed RTI and Special Education -Effective instruction and progress monitoring -Evaluation by RTI team -Early childhood services Implication of RTI for Students -Individual states make determination -Appropriate and adequate education in general education -Comprehensive evaluation remains necessary -Parental notification and consent -RTI is not a stall tactic Ensuring Progress in the General Curriculum Those in favor: higher expectations for students with disabilities=higher achievement Those against: conflict with IEP Goals, individualized? Standards Based Education -Process that identifies the academic content that students must muster -General education curriculum- Oklahoma C's standards -Academic Content -Student Achievement -Alternative Achievement Accommodations -Tools and procedures that provide equitable access for instruction and assessment Alternative Assessments -Students would not be successful on the regular state assessment, even with appropriate accommodations -Students who require modifications to the general education curriculum in order to be successful Universal Design -Provides equal opportunities for all to learn -Three main principles: Representation, Expression, Engagement -Greater opportunity: access, participate, demonstrate what they learned -Provides support for: greater accountability, greater flexibility, high quality curriculum Representation -Perceptions -Language and symbols -Comprehension -Knowing what of the learning process -Ex: Read aloud, audio books, eReader, listen to chapter on reading CD Expression -The how of learning -Physical action -Expressive skills and fluency -Executive function -Ex: Solving a math problem, writer response, visual arts project, paint to respond Engagement -The why of learning -Recruiting interests -Sustaining effort and persistence -Self-regulation -Ex: what motivates your students, address all learning styles, keep their attention
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