Brief notes for WK 9
Brief notes for WK 9 KIN 290
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeremy on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 290 at Western Illinois University taught by Dr. Satern in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Kinesiology at Western Illinois University.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
Week 9 A&P 1. End of chapter 8 a. Plane joints slide or glide. No movement in a plane b. Uniaxial joints are hinge joints like at the elbow with the humerus and ulna i. Also can occur with the ulna and radius c. Biaxial joints in a rounded and a convex surfaces that occurs at the metacarples and the phalanges i. A saddle joint occurs at the thumb d. Triaxial movement or mutiaxial joints are ball-and-socket joints 2. Chapter 9 a. 9.1 b. Muscles allow us to do work by transforming ATP into mechanical energy c. Prefixes for muscle include: i. Myo-, mys-, sarco- d. Table e. A muscle fiber is a muscle cell f. Skeletal muscle tissues are organs that are connected to the bone and skin i. Are the longest cells in the human body and they are striated ii. They can be consciously controlled g. Cardiac muscle is only found in the heart. It is also striated i. Cardiac muscle is involuntary ii. Activity is regulated by its own pacemaker h. Smooth muscle tissue is found on walls of hollow organs i. These muscles are not striated ii. It is involuntary and can contract on its own i. Charactistics of muscle tissue i. Excitability means its ability to receive or respond to stimula ii. Contractility is the ability to shorten when stimulated 1. Skeletal muscle is only muscle that can do this iii. Extensibility 1. Muscle tissue is also extensible 2. Tendons lack stripes iv. Elasticity j. The 4 functions of muscles i. Produce movement ii. Maintain posture and position—allow us to sit up right iii. To stabilize joints iv. These muscles generate heat as they contract too 3. 9.2 skeletal muscle anatomy a. nerve and blood supply i. every muscle has it very own nerve, artery, and its own vein ii. nerves supply every nerve fiber to control activity iii. most muscle fibers use glucose as it main source of energy b. connective tissue sheath i. the purpose is to wrap around the muscle and to protect them ii. they support the cells and reinforce the entire muscle itself iii. names of sheaths from outside to inside 1. epimysium-this is the outer sheath of the muscle that is made of dense irregular connective tissue 2. perimysium-is fibrous connective tissue that surrounds the fasicicles (muscle fibers in a bundle) 3. endomysium-covers the individual muscle fibers 4. TABLE 9.1 in textbook c. Attachments i. Muscles are attached to bone at two spots 1. The insertion is the attachment that is moveable. It is the more distal portion of the bone 2. The origin is the attachment to the immovable portion of the bone. ii. Can be attached directly to the bone 1. Epimysium is fused to the periosteum of cartilage iii. Indirect attachment is the connective tissue that wraps beyond the muscle and is a tendon that is ropelike 4. 9.3 a. Skeletal muscle fibers are cylindrical cells that contain multiple nucleus’ and are long i. The plasma membrane of a muscle fiber is the SARCOLEMMA 1. Sarco—flesh ii. The muscle fiber cytoplasm is the SarcoPLASM iii. The muscle fiber contains glycosomes for the storage of glycogen and myoglobin for Oxygen storage iv. Modified organelles in muscle 1. Myofibrils 2. Sarcoplasmic reticulum 3. T tubes b. Densely packed rodlike elements are myofibrils i. they are striated ii. contain sarcomeres iii. striations come from arrangement of proteins inside the myofibril 1. A Bands are the dark region a. H zone is lighter and in the middle 2. I band are the light regions a. Z disc runs in the middle c. Sarcomere i. This is the smallest contractile unit of a muscle fiber ii. Contains the entire A band with half of the I band 1. This is the area between Z discs iii. Z disc to Z disc d. Myofilaments i. An orderly arrangement of actin and myosin filaments within sarcomere 1. Actin—Thin filaments a. Anchored by the Z discs b. Extends across I band and part of A band c. Made up of two strands that wrap around eachother d. Have receptor sites for the myosin to link up to e. Tropomyosin and tropinin regulate the proteins that bond myosin to actin f. Troponin acts as a lock on the actin g. Causes the tropomyosin to open up for the heads of the myosin to connect to the actin 2. Myosin—thick filaments a. Cover length of A band b. Connected at the M line c. The heads of myosin, when excited, will flip up and will bind with actin and forms a cross bridge. Found in A band and not in the H Zone e. Sarcoplasmic reticulum i. A network of smooth endoplasmic reticulum tubules that surrounds each myofibril 1. Runs longitudinally 2. Wraps around every muscle fibril 3. Terminal cisterns from the cross channels at the A-I Band a. The function of the SR is to regulate intracellular Calcium levels b. Also stores and releases Calcium ii. T Tubules 1. A tube that runs around each myofilament 2. Passageway for calcium to enter cell iii. Triad relationship 1. T tubules in the center with the terminal cistern on both sides of the t tubule. a. The terminal cistern stores calcium 2. When electrical pulse passes, T tubule changes shape f. Contraction i. The activation of the cross bridges to generate a force ii. Shortening occurs when tension generated by cross bride on thin filaments exceeds forces opposing shortening iii. When the cross bridges become inactive, the contraction ends g. Sliding filament theory i. Thin and think filaments overlap slightly only at the ends of A bands ii. The theory states that during contraction, thin filaments slide past thick filaments, causing actin and myosin to overlap more 1. Neither myosin or actin change in length iii. When the nervous system stimulates the fibers, myosin heads are allowed to bind to the actin, creating those cross bridges, which cause the contraction process to begin iv. What happens during a contraction: 1. Z discs are pulled towards the M line 2. The I Band shortens 3. The H Zone disappears 4. The A Bands move close to each other