UW-Madison Cultural Anthropology
UW-Madison Cultural Anthropology ANTHRO 104
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by y-chen9 on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTHRO 104 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Dr. Falina Enriquez in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Anthropology 104 Notes #3 Chapter 7: Gender Gender studies: “Research into masculinity and femininity as flexible, complex and historically and culturally constructed categories” (178) Sex: “The observable physical differences between male and female, especially biological differences related to human reproduction” (179) Gender: “The expectations of thought and behavior that each culture assigns to people of different sexes” (179) Sexual dimorphism: “The phenotypic differences between males and females of the same species” (179) Biological science has helped create mental maps of reality that lead to determining biological sex o Genitalia, gonads (testes, ovaries), chromosomes Cultural construction of gender: “The ways humans learn to behave as a man or woman and to recognize behaviors as masculine or feminine within their cultural context” (181) Gender performance: “The way gender identity is expressed through action” (185) Intersexual: “An individual who is born with a combination of male and female genitalia, gonads, and/or chromosomes” o Can be a combination of different Genitalia, gonads (testes, ovaries), chromosomes Biopower (Michel Foucault): “The disciplining of the body through control of biological sex characteristics to meet a cultural need for clear distinctions between the sexes” (187) Transgender: A gender identity that does not fit with cultural norms related to one’s assigned sex at birth” (188) Gender stratification: “An unequal distribution of power and access to a group’s resources, opportunities, rights, and privileges based on gender” (193) Gender stereotype: “A preconceived notion about the attributes of, differences between, and proper roles for men and women in a culture” (193) Gender ideology: “A set of cultural ideas, usually stereotypical, about the essential character of different genders that functions to promote and justify gender stratification” (193) The social construction of gender influences how biology is described by scientists o “Egg and sperm”—Emily Martin. Sperm aggressive, eggpassive CO-Madres of El Salvador. Unified group of mothers whose children were killed by government Chapter 8: Sexuality Sexuality: “The complex range of desires, beliefs, and behaviors that are related to erotic physical contact and the cultural arena within which people debate about what kinds of physical desires and behaviors are right, appropriate and natural” (208) o “Culture guides and limits sexual imagination” (208) Same-gender “Mati Work” in Suriname o Gloria Wekker Heterosexuality Homosexuality Bisexuality Asexuality Michel Foucault (French social socialist): “sexuality is an especially dense transfer point for relations of power” Intersectionality: The way systems of power interconnect to affect individual lives and group experiences Sexual violence: “Violence perpetuated through sexually related physical assaults such as rape” (226) ‘Yan Daudy (from Nigeria): “Men who do the deed”. Perform womanly deeds— cook, clean, have sex with men Many Africans feel homo from America coming to Africa is western imperial domination Lecture 9: Gender Chromosomes—humans have 23 pairs, one pair which is a sex chromosome o Women: XX, Men: XY Intersex o Some people have only one – X (1:3000); others have three or more, XXX (1:1000), or XYY (1:1000) o Someone with XX can have all the physical characteristics of a man, someone with XY can have all the physical characteristics of a women, some people have mosaic—a mix Enculturation requires learning how to “do” your gender o You are recruited into gender before birth (sonograms) Despite fluidity, we see gender as fixed o Gender shapes social space and norms Bathrooms Baby showers: reinforce motherhood as women’s central role Wedding parties separated by bride vs. groom (bachelorette/bachelor parties) Among the Kaluli in Papua New Guinea, men diffuse their anger together in the public “big house”, women express anger in private with other women Gender identity can be changed o Parents often choose to have babies born with ambiguous genitalia undergo surgery to fit the gender binary o Transgender May get surgery to physically meet the norm of their gender Consumer culture enforces gender stereotypes and male/female binary o Products are targeted to specific genders, men are default consumers o Ideals of femininity in opposition to masculinity Gender inequality o Gender stereotypes are not harmless, they reinforce inequality o Gender stereotypes typically value masculinity as the default over femininity o Idea that gender is natural has been used to justify male dominance Lecture 10: Sexuality Sexual norms change over time o Sex used to be just for procreation o Terms heterosexual and homosexual coined in 19 C o Labels such as “hetero”, “homo” etc, reinforce sense of fixity and essence Sexual norms differ between cultures o Mati women case study by Wekker Case study—Brazil Brazil is very progressive o Since 1830, homosexuality not criminalized National repeal of sodomy did not happen in U.S. until 2003 o Gender/status subversion institutionalized as part of the national identity during Carnival Catholic holiday that precedes Lent Men dress up as women, and vice versa. Rich dress up as poor, and vice versa, etc. o Sao Paulo Pride Parade (2009)—Guinness Book of World Records, largest Gay Pride parade in the world (4 million people) But there is still opposition to this o Violence against LGBT people is pervasive Especially during dictatorship (1964-1985) o “Gay Group Bahia” tallied newspaper report to estimate 1,200 gays murdered during 1986-1993. Travesti by Don Kulick (1998) o Ethnography of transvesti sex workers in Salvador, Bahia 3 largest Brazilian city (2.9 million) Lived in Pelourinhho neighborhood; saw how travesties live, work, and play These are men who identify as a feminine gay man, and a woman to a degree. Travestis show that genitalia does not fully determine gender identity Travestis differ from transsexuals because they do not feel as it they were born in the wrong body Not a third gender, rearranging what already exists For them, active/passive sexual roles are key to defining gender They want a boyfriend that makes them feel feminine and can be the passive In work, they are the active and feel even more pleasure fulfilling clients’ desires Gay people see them as too extreme and making LGBT community worse. So they don’t have support from even gays. Globalization has impacts on sexuality o Pro and anti LGBT discourses around the world o Travestis sometimes go to France to do their work Chapter 9: Kinship, family and marriage Kinship: “The system of meaning and power that cultures create to determine who is related to whom and to define their mutual expectations, rights, and responsibilities” (236) Nuclear family: “The kinship unit of mother, father, and children” (236) Descent group: “A kinship group in which primary relationships are traced through consanguineous (blood) relatives” (238) Lineage: “A type of descent that traces genealogical connection through generations by linking persons to a founding ancestor” (238) Clan: “A type of descent group based on a claim to a founding ancestor but lacking genealogical documentation” (238) o Unilineal: Matrilineal or patrilineal o Ambilineal: Both, also called bilateral/cognatic Kinship naming systems: o Eskimo—most common, nuclear form only o Hawaiian—least complex, de-emphasis on nuclear o Sudanese—most complex, many different terms o Omaha—Unilineal, typically patrilineal o Crow—Unilineal, typically matrilineal o Iroquois—Unilineal, same terms for “dad and uncle”, etc Their similarities—all classifying relatives in parental generation...patterns called: lineal, bifurcate, merging generational, bifurcate collateral Affinal relationships: “A kinship relationship established through marriage and/or alliance, not through biology or common ancestor” (246) Marriage: “A socially recognized relationship that may involve physical and emotional intimacy as well as legal rights to property and inheritance” (246) Arranged marriage: “Marriage orchestrated by the families of the involved parties” (246) o Commitment to larger group/social obligation Companionate marriage: “Marriage built on love, intimacy and personal choice rather than social obligation” (246) Polygamy: Marriage between one guy and two or more women Polyandry: Marriage between one woman and two or more guys Monogamy: Marriage between two partners o Serial monogamy—caused by divorce or death Incest taboo: “Cultural rules that forbid sexual relations with certain close relatives” (247) Cross cousins (children of a mother’s brother or a father’s sister) >>> Parallel cousins (children of a father’s brother or a mother’s sister). Why do incest taboos exist? Where did they originate? o Sex horrors passed down from history o Malinowski/Freud: “protect family unit from sexual competitiveness/jealousy” o Biology says no However the taboo idea came out before the biological implications were known Even so…the risk is less than women > 40 have kids Endogamy: Marriage to someone within the kinship group” o Sometimes incest? Exogamy: “Marriage to someone outside the kinship group” (249) o Interracial marriages o 1967—“Loving vs. Virginia”. Supreme Court decides miscegenation is unconstitutional Bridewealth: The gift of goods or money from groom’s family bride’s family, in marriage o Compensation for taking the women away Dowry: Like above, but bride’s family groom’s family o Compensation to husband for perhaps his responsibility, the man’s family may be of higher status The Langkawi of Malaysia (251)—houses and hearths are sites of production of kinship Poor African Americans in “Flats”, in Chicago, IL (252)—building lifelines for survival through extended kinship networks. They help each other when sick, lend each other money, etc. “Nationalism draws heavily on ideas of kinship and family to create a sense of connection among very different people” (253) Artificial insemination in Israel (253)—important because Jewishness is passed down matrilineally. However…what if a Jewish mother cannot have kids.. And gets eggs from a non-Jewish woman…who is the father. What if a non-Jewish mother gets eggs from a Jewish woman. In which case is the baby Jewish? –Lots of controversy Family of orientation: “The family group in which one is born, grows up, and develops life skills life skills” (255) Family of procreation: “The family group created when one reprocess and within which one rears children” (255) The hegemony of the nuclear family emerged as a result of 19 C industrialization (256) Lecture 11: Kinship Early anthropologists/philosophers saw the nuclear family as the societal building block because it seemed like a micro-version of society itself Nuclear family is contrasted to extended family and communalism Henry Lewis Morgan listed the NF as the most “civilized” In The Family among the Australian Aborigines, Malinowski (1913) argued the NF as universal due to biological need to raise children + cultural need to have them linked to parents In Social Structure George P. Murdock (1949) asserts NF as the “basic unit from which more complex families form” (2). The term nuclear family became popular in 1950s because of Talcott Parsons (1955) He argued that NF were not good for industrialization. In industrialization, people often need to move to find work in new places. o Industrialization often fragmented nuclear families The nuclear family is not universally important o Clans can be more important than nuclear family Clan—type of descent group based on founding ancestor (238) o Israeli kibbutz is an organizing unit and collective property (Garber-Talon, 1972) The household as most important o Zinacantecos, a Mayan group in Mexico o Anthropologist Evon Z. Vogt (1969) and sociologist Francesa Cancian (1964) show household as main economic/social unit Linguistic clues about kinship diversity o Ayllu: most important kinship territory unit among indigenous Andean people Includes flexible amounts of people, subdivided into different, multiple ayllus Kinship is flexible o Amawaka case!! Lecture 12: Marriage Arranged marriage in Nepal (women beaten) o Technology (letters, text messaging) impact marriage o Elopement does not provide the safeguards of arranged marriage Weddings o A form of social reciprocity (stress of deciding who to invite) o A form of conspicuous consumption (show off how much money you have) Marriage does not require a wedding o Amawaka people do not have weddings—begin living together in the same hut o Rebhun explains lack of weddings/legal marriage among lower-class and/or rural Brazilians for whom living together is the norm Sikh: Monotheistic religion predominant in India and across the globe Interracial marriage o 2010 Census: 10% heterosexual marriages are interracial, up from 7% in 2000 o Lack of legal ban does not mean lack of discrimination o 2010 Census: Unmarried couples have higher rates of interracial partnerships: 18% opposite sex partners, 21% same sex Before 1950s-60s in U.S. legal divorce had to prove “fault”, eg—abandonment, cruelty Fictive kin o Extended family networks—neighborhoods, Greek life, Chapter 5: Race and Racism Neil Smith: “No such thing as a natural disaster” o Whether natural events disaster = social factors – location, vulnerability of population, government preparedness, effectiveness of response, and reconstruction efforts “Race”—scientifically not real really just human race Race: “A flawed system of classification, with no biological basis, that uses certain physical characteristics to divide the human population into supposedly discrete groups” (123) Racism: “Individual thoughts and actions and institutional patterns and policies that create unequal access to power, privilege, resources, and opportunities based on imagined differences among groups” (124) Genotype: “The inherited genetic facts that provide the framework for an organism’s physical form” (126) Phenotype: “The way genes are expressed in an organism’s physical form as a result of genotype interaction with environmental facts” (127) Phenotype directly relates to specific genotype o For example a gene that makes blonde hair, gives blonde hair. Neither the genotype nor phenotype relates to a person’s intellectual capabilities. Colonialism: “The practice by which a nation state extends political economic, and military power beyond its own borders over an extended period of time to secure access to raw materials, cheap labor, and markets in other countries or regions” (128) o Racism colonialism Fun fact: Brazil and U.S. are two most “racially diverse” countries in Western hemisphere. Yet, America has very few “colors” to describe skin, while Brazil has hundreds. o “Brazil = racial democracy” Miscegenation: “A demeaning historical term for interracial marriage” (130) Fun fact: 1970 census—respondents did not get to identify their own race—census workers assigned them to a racial category based on their appearance White supremacy: Belief that whites are biologically different from and superior than other races Whiteness: “A culturally constructed concept originating in 1691 Virginia designed to establish clear boundaries of who is white and who is not, a process central to the formation of U.S. racial stratification” (134) Jim Crow: “Laws implemented after the U.S. Civil War to legally enforce segregation, particularly in the South, after the end of slavery” (134) Hypodescent: “Sometimes called the “one drop of blood rule”, the assignment of children of racially “mixed unions to the subordinate group” (135) Nativism: “The favoring of certain long-term inhabitants over new immigrants” (136) Eugenics: “A pseudoscience attempting to scientifically prove the existence of separate human races to improve the population’s genetic composition by favoring some races over others” (136) Racialization: “The process of categorizing, differentiating, and attributing a particular racial character to a person or group of people” (140) Individual racism: “Personal prejudiced beliefs and discriminatory actions based on race” (141) Institutional racism (structural racism): “Patterns by which racial inequality is structured through key cultural institutions, policies, and systems” (141) Racial ideology: “A set of popular ideas about race that allows the discriminatory behaviors of individuals and institutions to seem reasonable, rational, and normal” (142) Eduardo Bonvilla-Silva: Best way to end racism is to eliminate race...or this could make it worse Intersectionality: “An analytic framework for assessing how factors such as race, gender, and class interact to shape individual life chances and societal patterns of stratification” (147) Lecture 13: Race and Racism AAA statement on race o “Human populations are not unambiguous, clearly demarcated, biologically distinct groups” o “Genetically, there is greater variation within racial groups than between them” o “The continued sharing of genetic materials has maintained all of human kind as a single species” Franz Boas also argued this point. He worked to deconstruct race and show it is socially constructed The South African Pencil Test o Apartheid (1984-94)—A system of legalized, racial segregation that separated white, “colored” (mixed-race), Indian and black South Africans o Pencil Test—a way to “prove” whether someone was black or colored”: Put a pencil in your hair, shake your head—if it stayed in, you were black o Colored and black people prevented from owning land, voting, marrying whites, etc. o Only colored people could legally work in Cape town—thus, important to distinguish between “colored” and “black” People’s physical and genetic attributes exist as a dense continuum. If you walked from Africa to Russia, you would not see any specific changes in the way people looked—physical changes are extremely dense and gradual compared to geography. Race as a dehumanizing project o The idea of race began from colonialism o First capitalism—slavery o In order to profit from colonialism, Europeans had to have a large labor force: African slaves 1440s: Portuguese use African slave labor for cane cultivation on Maderia Justifying slavery and racism o Religious and legal institutions promoted slavery/racism Rational that slavery is mentioned in the Bible o 1455: Pope Nicholas V grants kings of Span and Portugal the right to enslave “non-believers” o 1661: Virginia colonists enact law to institute African slavery and progressively expand owners’ rights. Other colonies follow. o 1857: Supreme court rules neither enslaved nor free African Americans are citthens (Dred Scott case) o 19 C: Science used to justify racism—cultural evolutionists and eugenics without acknowledging effects of colonialism Summarizing race as part of colonial project o Race is not a neutral ideal. Race = racism o In the past/present race is as a way to : Create groups of people based on “natural” attributes Stratify these groups An imagined “pure” group of people of European descent serve as yardstick Preparing for midterm: o End of chapter summary questions o Review keywords in own words o Think of examples for each keyword that were not mentioned in the book or lecture Examples on exam will not be examples from textbook or lecture o Try all of these things with your classmates Lecture 14: White Privilege Irish people as a “race” o Potato famine pushes Irish people to the U.S. (1845-49) o Irish characterized as a separate race, as backward and dangerous o Overtime, Irish workers unify and “protect” their jobs from being “taken” by African Americas o Now, they are part of the “white race” Racism is not only about color o If a child’s mother was a slave, then he or she was a slave as well kinship o “Passing”: When a person presents themselves as another race Person who’s black by “one drop rule” could pass as white in everyday life Brazil: A closer look o “One drop rule” does not apply in Brazil o The norm in Brazil is to be mixed race o This is due to historical and political circumstances o Brazil imported many more slaves, this led to a different demographic profile o 1850s: Brazil’s slave population approx.. 40% of total population 19 C racial ideologies in Brazil o In Brazil, miscegenation was relatively accepted during colonial period o After abolition in 1888, national anxiety about lack of racial “purity” o Elites thought African heritage would be diluted (whitened) Dark grandma, mixed daughter and white husband, white baby o Government encourages white immigration o 1900-1920: Brazilian census excludes race in part because of a sense of inferiority, the “problem” of miscegenation o Lack of racial classification does not entail tolerance or lack of racism Brazilian ideologies change o After WWI, Americas become sites of modernization, new global order emerges o Brazilian scholars (Gilberto Freyre) re-imagined miscegenation as positive trait His work was influenced by Franz Boas—saw race as socially constructed o Racial democracy (1930s – 1980s): An aspirational ideology promoted by the government o Tri-racial narrative o Samba/carnival become signs of RD o Brazil promotes itself as a more democratic place than the segregate U.S. o RD becomes a popular idea o RD (mesticagem) “denies the existence of blacks” Summary o The fact that visibly mixed-race and black Brazilians consistently face more obstacles in income opportunity, healthcare, education, etc. is no coincidence o A result of slavery and institutionalized racism despite discourses of racial mixture and racial democracy o Not equivalent to the U.S., but not a racial utopia nor a place with infinite races