Popular in Understanding and Accommodating Students with Exceptionalities
Popular in Special Education
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jillian O'Connor on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EDSP 3054 at University of Oklahoma taught by Joyce Brandes in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Understanding and Accommodating Students with Exceptionalities in Special Education at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
Disabilities Disabilities Over Time -Prehistoric ancestors -Aristotle -God's Disfavor-something that they did and they were punished -Middle Ages -Jamestown, VA (1607) -1624 Mara Buck (b. 1611) -First colonial child -Freak Shows (1840-1940) Dr. Samuel Howe: Perkins Institute -School for the Blind-1832 -Helen Keller went here Eugenics -Deemed to be undesirable would be euthanized -used gas chambers Education -until 1950s: Exclusion -exception to exclusion? -blindness and deafness were the exceptions -Hospital-schools- getting an education while receiving medical care -Best example: Franklin Delano Roosevelt Disability Categories Who are the Students? -Approximately 6 million students -ages 6-21 -321,894 infants and toddlers or 2.7% -709,004 preschool children or 5.7% -346,258 students 18-21 receive education services -Total: 7,267,005 -Average: 12% of students who have disabilities Adversely affects educational performance: -Does not mean a child must be failing school -Special education services are available to: -students with a disability -students who need special education services Categories Autism (ASD) -affects communication, social interaction, and adaptive behavior Deaf-Blindness -Hearing and visual impairments, in combination, that cause severe combination, developmental, and educational needs Deaf -impairment that causes difficulty in processing language through hearing, with or without amplification -hearing aids can't make a difference Emotional Disturbance (ED) -Exhibits one or more of the following for a long period of time (6 months) -inability to learn that cannot be explained, build and maintain friendships, inappropriate behavior or feelings, unhappiness or depression, development of physical symptoms or fears Hearing Impairment (HI) -Permanent or fluctuating -Is not deafness Intellectual Disability (ID) -Subaverage general intelligence with deficits in adaptive behavior -less than 70 IQ Multiple Disabilities (MD) -Combination of impairments that cause severe educational needs Orthopedic Impairment (OI) -Includes congenital anomaly -Can be caused by disease (Polio) -Other causes (amputation, Cerebral Palsy) Other Health Impairments (OHI) -Students with limited strength, vitality, or alertness due to chronic or acute health problems Specific Learning Disability (SLD) -Disorder in at least one psychological process used in understanding or using written and spoken language -Reading and Math- most common LD Speech or Language Impairment (SI) -Communication disorder Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) -Acquired injury to the brain resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both -Shaken baby syndrome-most common Visual Impairment (VI) -Impairment in vision, that, even with correction, adversely affects educational performance -glasses or contacts do not make a difference People First Language Individuals with Disabilities -Individuals with specific needs and interests -The largest minority group in the U.S- 1 in 5 Americans have a disability (54 million) -Old language: autistic child, wheelchair-bound man -inappropriate, inaccurate, negative, devalues -Use people before the disability -child with autism, person who use a wheelchair Criticism -Repetitive, awkward, draws attention to the disability by making it a "married identity" (Vaughan) -Deaf culture: deafness is not a disability -Deaf person, hard of hearing person -"hearing impaired" is not acceptable to most deaf or hard of hearing people Tips -The Golden Rule -Let the individual tell you what they need -Talk directly to the individual -Get on eye level with a person in a wheelchair -Do not pet helper dogs -Be patient and considerate -Use inclusion, general education Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Six Principles -Passed in 1975, enacted in 1978 Marginalization -1893: Massachusetts Supreme Court -1919: Wisconsin Supreme Court- could be expelled -1958: Illinois Supreme Court- did not have to provide education to people with disabilities -1969: North Carolina Related Services-help the child reach academic/physical goals -Ex: counseling, transportation Six Principles -Zero Reject -child find -school's responsibility to help find the services for the child -Nondiscriminatory evaluation- cannot discriminate -Appropriate education- Environment -Free and Appropriate Public Education -Least Restrictive environment- Environment -Procedural due process- Parenting resources, makes schools and parents responsible to ensure FAPE is provided -Parental and student participation- Parenting resources Discipline -1975 Goss. v. Lopez -Due Process Safeguards: -Not as detailed as criminal code -Must give student notice of expectation -Must be school related -Discipline for off-campus misconduct if state law permits and if it is connected to school -Section 504-Idea Lite -IDEA -"stay-put rule"-stay where they are at until it is resolved -45-day suspension-10 school days, school has to provide FABE and LRE, student must have IEP. Alternative setting regardless of manifestation determination: -bodily harm (self or others), weapon or drugs- only reasons to suspend more than 10 days- becomes change of placement -short-term removal-manifestation determination-whether behavior is function of student's disability, if it is then they have to rewrite IEP and then FBA and BIP -change of placement What is a weapon? -Weapon- Blade > 2.5", metal-tipped marker, bullet, cigarette lighter -Not a weapon- Blade < 2.5", paper clip, pencil, safety scissors What is bodily injury? -Substantial risk of death -high threshold- better off calling the police and filing a report -Extreme physical pain -Obvious disfigurement -Loss/impairment of limbs, organs, or mental faculty Nondiscriminatory Evaluation -Determines whether a student has a disability and if so, to what extent -Must be free of all bias, administered by a trained professional, include more than one assessment, be given in student's native language Appropriate Education -Individual Education Plan (IEP) -Must be individualized -Must be developed by the same people who were involved in the evaluation -Rowley Case: must have goals and is the foundation of an appropriate education -two-prong test Procedural Due Process -Schools and parents are accountable to each other to ensure FAPE is being provided -Three avenues of resolution: -Face to face meeting between parents and school -Mediation -Due process hearing -Ways schools become liable: -child find, evaluation, implementation of IEP, progress data collecting, procedural violations Remedies for IDEA violations -Monetary Damages -Tuition Reimbursement -Compensatory Education Parent and Student Participation -Parent must be a part of the IEP team -Parental consent and notification is mandatory -Parents have the right to dispute and to access records -At 18, rights transfer to the student -unless the student is ID
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