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by: Jillian O'Connor
Jillian O'Connor
GPA 3.21

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About this Document

These notes cover Emotional & Behavior Disorders and Learning Disabilities
Understanding and Accommodating Students with Exceptionalities
Joyce Brandes
Class Notes
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Popular in Understanding and Accommodating Students with Exceptionalities

Popular in Special Education

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jillian O'Connor on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EDSP 3054 at University of Oklahoma taught by Joyce Brandes in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Understanding and Accommodating Students with Exceptionalities in Special Education at University of Oklahoma.


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Date Created: 03/28/16
Emotional and Behavior Disorders Overview -Possessed by the devil -Inhumane treatment -1960s-70s: new teaching strategies developed -Now: -still considered most difficult to teach (behaviorally, socially, academically) -employment -life Defining -Difficult to define -Terminology -ED: emotional disturbance -ODD- oppositional defiant disorder -CD- conduct disorder -socially maladjusted Federal: have to have one or more characteristics over a long period of time -inability to learn, build/maintain relationships, inappropriate types of behavior/feelings at certain times, general pervasive of unhappiness/depression, tendency to develop physical symptoms to children who are socially maladjusted DSM-V -recurring pattern of four of the following behaviors: -losing temper, arguing with adults, actively defying with requests, blaming others for their mistakes, being angry and resentful, etc. Conduct disorder -repetitive/persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major-age appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. recurring behavior of three of these over six months -aggression to people/animals, destruction of property, theft, serious violation of rules -25% of ADHD have conduct disorder Prevalence of ED/BD -0.7% of students (6-21) -debate over accuracy -3-6%: in textbook -CDC: 14.5% age 4-17 -Gender, ethnic, and socioeconomic factors influence prevalence -white males more than white women -black females more than white females -black males: highest disportionality Emotional Characteristics of ED/BD -Anxiety- separation anxiety, generalized anxiety disorder, phobia, panic disorder, OCD, PTSD -Mood- depression, suicide, bipolar -Oppositional defiant disorder -Conduct disorder -Schizophrenia Behavorial Characteristics of ED/BD -Externalizing: aggression, acting out, noncompliant behaviors -Internalizing: withdrawal, depression, anxiety, obsessions, compulsions Cognitive and Academic Characteristics -below grade level in reading, math, and writing -rated low on self-control skills measures -higher rates of being held back in a grade -may have expressive and/or receptive language disorders -shows low levels of academic engagement -acts out to escape work that is too difficult Social Characteristics -rejected by peers -interprets neutral cues as hostile -socially isolated Causes -Biological Causes -prenatal drug exposure -genetic foundation- mood disorders, depression, and schizophrenia -Environmental Considerations -school factors: teachers' expectations and feedback -keep them in class so they know what is going on in class -family factors and considerations: poverty, abuse, neglect, parental stress, inconsistent expectations and rules Assessments -Rating scales, personality inventories, and observations -Scale for assessing emotional disturbance -follows five elements from IDEA -inability to learn, build/maintain satisfactory relationships, inappropriate behavior, unhappiness/depression, physical symptoms or fears, student involvement and antisocial behaviors in environments outside of school How can schools help? -consistency of rules, expectations and consequences in all key settings -positive school climate -school-wide strategies for resolving conflict -high level of supervision in all school settings -cultural sensitivity -strong feelings of identifications and involvement on the part of students -high levels of parent and community involvement -well-utilize space and lack of overcrowding Tips for Effective Instruction -Giving instructions -use as few commands as possible to teach and manage behavior -when giving commands, focus on initiating commands rather than terminating commands -give one command at a time -be clear and direct -allow at least ten seconds for the student to respond -give the command one time only -be relatively close to the student when delivering a command Tips for Classroom Management -Getting Students Involved -provide students with a high rate of opportunities to respond -incorporate choice that allows students a chance to choose which tasks to complete first -have students complete a series of quick tasks that they are likely to complete without a struggle before asking them to do tasks they may not prefer is much -maintain close proximity to students as your presence will help keep them engaged and help them control their behaviors -provide instructional tasks that are neither too easy nor too difficult Functional Behavior Analysis -A process of collecting information to determine why problem behavior occurs -Data is then use to create a positive behavior intervention plan Positive Behavior Supports -Strategies to teach a reinforced new positive behaviors -This can be in the form of a behavior intervention plan or behavior support plan Assessment Accommodations -Students an alternative school settings need to progress in the general education curriculum so that they may return to their neighborhood schools Other Educational Needs -more than 50% of students drop out -low employment rate for school dropouts Learning Disabilities -Neurological disorder -how they receive, process, store, respond -Average IQ, difficulty with basic academic skills History -1969- Congress passed Children with Disabilities Act Prevalence -2.5 million students -doubled since 1975- expanded the definition, more awareness, more testing and more things that we can do for it -5-10% have LD -12% of students have special education Causes -Neurological -brain abnormality, genetics -Environmental -led paint, pollution, shaken baby syndrome, head injury, fetal alcohol syndrome, malnutrition -Illness/injury to mother before birth Characteristics -Uneven skills -splinter skills- student is really good at one thing and not good at something else -Hyperactivity -trying to compensate -perception, visual, auditory discrimination -Attention -don't think they are going to understand it, then they are not going to do it -Similar to ADHD Academic -Resistance to treatment -difficult to teach -poor basic language skills-related to reading skills because we get a lot of our language skills from reading/writing -inability to generalize- if you don't understand the past, then won't be able to understand what is happening in the present -everything builds off each other Social -makes poor decisions -immature -other people don't want to work with LD person- not on task -rejected -naive Behavioral Characteristics -Class clown (academic) -Inattentive (academic) -Withdrawn (academic) -Outcast (social) -Quiet (social) LD Identification-RtI or Discrepancy Model -Wait to Fail- Discrepancy Model -earliest time you can do it- 9 years old -waiting for them to fall out of label Support in the Classroom -Provide structure and establish a set of expectations -Adjust instructional materials and activities -Give students feedback and reinforcement -Make tasks interesting -group work= good idea. extra help and understanding from different perspectives Individualized Instruction -Audio books, using a calculator, extra time, quieter environment for testing, break everything down into smaller steps, peer tutor, iPad/computer Dyslexia Accommodations 1. Output-Text reader-changing the output of words/sentences 2. Input-Large print for instructions 3. Participation-Class was reading a novel, the dyslexic student watches the movie version Ex: To Kill a Mockingbird Modifications 1. Alternate/Substitute Curriculum -student writes out one letter while the others write out one sentence 2. Alternate/Modified -student with dyslexia name parts of the plant, while the other students need to identify and correctly spell the parts


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