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Soc 354, Week 9 notes

by: Clarissa Hinshaw

Soc 354, Week 9 notes Soc 354

Clarissa Hinshaw
GPA 3.5

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Notes for Week 9
Families and Social Change
Jan Reynolds
Class Notes
sociology, Families and Social Change
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clarissa Hinshaw on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 354 at Northern Illinois University taught by Jan Reynolds in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Families and Social Change in Sociology at Northern Illinois University.


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Date Created: 03/28/16
Chapter 6 Sexuality  Like gender identity, sexual orientation covers a broad spectrum of behavior and  attractions, not just heterosexual and homosexual.   Non heterosexual orientations have become more acceptable partly because of the  acceptance of sex for pleasure, rather than strictly procreation.   Sexual attitudes have changed with the times and differ with generations.   Sexual orientation: what gender(s) a person is sexually and/or romantically attracted to.  Sexual orientation is a part of a person’s identity. Although it can be related to gender  identity, it is a completely separate identity.   As Alfred Kinsey has mentioned in his research, sexual orientation occurs on a spectrum,  with heterosexual and homosexual on the ends, and various amounts of bisexuality in  between.   Bisexuality is not as recognized and some people place a promiscuous stigma on it, even  though these people have standards, just like anyone else.   Some people are also asexual, meaning they have no sexual attraction to anyone.   Pansexual: people who are attracted to any gender, not just the binary genders.   These are only some of the sexual orientations, as there are many more.   Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) and queer are umbrella terms used to  describe minority gender identities and sexual orientations.   Some people will participate in a same sex encounter and not identify as gay.   Like gender identity, sexual orientation is sometimes fluid and can change over a  person’s lifespan.   Stigma: negative quality attached to a behavior or identity. Ex: there is often a stigma  attached to being gay or bisexual.   Homophobia: Fear of gay people or being perceived as gay if one does not conform to  gender norms.   Frued believed nonheterosexual people were the result of abnormalities in sexual  development which could be cured.   Early supporters of gay rights believed nonheterosexual identities were a lifestyle choice.   Scientist now believe sexual orientation is naturally occurring.   Queer theory represents the concept of sexual orientation being fluid rather than having  strict boxes to put people in.   Religions historically condemned homosexuality and same­sex behavior more than any  other ‘sin’. Although it is not condemned now, many of these organizations still oppose  nonheterosexual orientations.   Gay and lesbian relations are more socially acceptable today than cheating on a  significant other and teen sex, but less acceptable than having kids out of wedlock,  premarital sex, and divorce.   Heterosexual privilege is represented when straight people are called ‘people’ and the rest are called ‘gay people’, ‘bisexual people’, ‘pansexual people’, etc.  Generational attitudes toward same­sex relationships often cause conflict within the  family. Ex: if a college student is liberal and their parents are conservative.   Coming out: revealing sexual orientation or gender identity to other people.   Biological perspective: The study of how genes and hormone affect sexuality and  reproduction. Example: what the body physical goes through during arousal. Why  women are more responsive than men could also be a question answer from this  perspective.  Evolutionary perspective: How our sexual behavior is similar to some mammals  because of evolution. Example: how our behaviors are compared to those of apes, what  we find attractive in a mate.   Changes in sexuality o 95% of people are not virgins when they marry. o Men generally have more partner over their lifetime, but average age for  deflowering is 17 for all genders. o Most people do not have as many partners as some believe.  o Unfortunately, the incidence of rape is fairly common. It is more common the  younger the person is.   Sexual double standard: the concept of women being more harshly judged for sexual  behavior than men. Ex: calling women sluts or whores for having sex, while praising men for the same act.  o This happens because of gender socialization.  o Men are expected to be the pursuers of sexual activity and women are expected to be passive and not enjoy sex.  o Men generally want women who are less sexually experienced than themselves.  o Parents are more likely to monitor their teenage daughters’ sexual activity than  their teenage son’s.   Although sex is considered important in long term relationships, most couples don’t see it as most important.   Youngers couples usually have more sex than older couples.  Many couples today have more freedom than in the past because they have more privacy.  There is less infidelity than most people think.  Less teenagers are having sex today than in the past.   Adolescence: period of development between childhood and emerging adulthood.   People of every generation have assumed teens are having more sex than the generation  before.   Teens who have sex are increasing their use of contraception.   Rates of teen sex are higher in areas of low socioeconomic status.   Sex is a problem when it is not consensual or leads to STI’s, unplanned pregnancy, or  emotional problems.  Teen sex is more likely to cause these problems.   Countries have lower teen pregnancy, STI, birth, and abortion rates than in the US, even  though they begin having sex at the same age.   Nonconsentual sex on teens is usually perpetrated by adults over 18.  The type of sex education teens receive has a great impact on their decisions.   Rates of STIs vary by race. This is because there are differences in onset of sexual  activity and number of partners.   Erectile dysfunction: when a cisgender man can no longer obtain an erection.   Lack of a satisfying sex life could be a cause of divorce in the past for men but not  women.   Drug companies have exaggerated the commonness of erectile dysfunction.   Viagra is expensive unless covered by insurance.


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