Psyc 474, Week 9 notes
Psyc 474, Week 9 notes Psyc 474
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clarissa Hinshaw on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 474 at Northern Illinois University taught by Ellen Lee in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Psychological Basis of Sexuality in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Chapter 10 Sexual Orientation Sexual orientation: the gender(s) of which a person is sexually or romantically attracted to. Ex: women, men, nonbinary genders Heterosexual: a person who identifies as a binary gender and is attracted to people of the other binary gender. Homosexual: a person attracted to people of their gender. o Gay man: a person who identifies as male and is attracted to others who identify as male. o Lesbian: a person who identifies as female and is attracted to others who identify as female. Bisexual: a person of any gender who is attracted to people who identify as female or male. Pansexual: a person of any gender who is attracted to people of any gender. Asexual: a person of any gender who is not attracted to anyone. These are only some of the sexual orientations which exist. Some gay people don’t like the term homosexual because it focuses on sexual behavior. Sexual orientation is completely separate from gender identity. Sexual behavior doesn’t necessarily define sexual orientation. Sometimes people behave in way not matching their sexual orientation. Kinsey suggested of sexual orientation being on a sliding scale. Sometimes past behavior not matching sexual orientation can be part of teen experimentation. Younger people are more likely to be nonheterosexual than older people. This may be because they are more in touch with their sexual orientation. Black people are usually more likely to be nonheterosexual. Homophobia: Fear of gay people or being perceived as gay if one does not conform to gender norms. This is because of traditional masculine and feminine norms placed on people. Some people come out as bisexual to cover up being gay. Biphobia: discrimination of bisexual people by both straight and gay people. They feel pressure from both groups to commit to one gender attraction. Many bisexual men end up marrying women. Although homosexuality was encouraged or tolerated in some societies, it was condemned in most. In ancient Greece, adult men had sexual relations with teen boys. Same sex behavior is prevalent in over 70 societies and was viewed as normal. Swallowing semen was seemed to boost strength and representing manhood. However, men were expected to marry women as adults. Not much is known about sexual relations between women. Samesex behavior has been found in over 450 animal species. There is evidence to suggest of sexual orientation being linked to the x chromosome. There is evidence of lesbian or gay men orientations possibly running in families. Scientists have not found a particular gene linked to sexual orientation, but possibly a location where the gene could be found. Activating effects: chromosomal influence on sex drive. Freud believed people became sexually stimulated to the other binary gender parent and homosexuality was an illness. He believed lack of the other binary gender parent caused homosexuality. Learning theory also believes sexual orientation is caused by early experiences. However, many people who participate in samesex encounters as teens identify as heterosexual in adulthood. Gender nonconforming refers to a person who does not behave in ways similar to the stereotypical norms of their sex. This could refer to a transperson or a masculine lesbian/feminine gay man. Butch: a masculine lesbian Femme: a feminine gay man We still don’t know what causes sexual orientation. Acceptance of homosexuality has been one of the biggest social changes. What caused this for most people was knowing someone who was gay. Many people still believe humans choose to be gay. Some states still have sodomy laws. Gay rights movements started in the 1960s with the Stonewall riots. Some of the issues they are facing today are obtaining the right to marry, serve openly in the military, and obtain the same job benefits for their significant other. Many straight believe there is a dominant and submissive person in samesex relationships, when it really varies. Nonheterosexual people are more likely to attempt suicide, be depressed, and develop drug addictions than heterosexual people. Gay bashing: physical, sexual, or verbal violence against gay people. Homophobia: Fear of gay people or being perceived as gay if one does not conform to gender norms. Instead of promoting conversion therapy, society is becoming more focused on changing norms. Coming out process o Feeling attraction to same gendered people o Labeling oneself with a sexual orientation o Sexual contact with same gendered people o Disclosing sexual orientation to others Men are more likely to have sexual encounters before coming out, while women do the opposite. Media representation of gay people has encouraged more people to come out. Some people come out to everyone, while others only come out to their loved ones. Many are reluctant to tell anyone. ‘butch’ lesbians are more likely to come out than feminine lesbians. Black people are less likely than white people to come out because of being raised more traditionally. Chapter 11 Conception, Pregnancy, and Childbirth Conception happens when sperm and egg cells unite. Usually an x or y chromosome is in the sperm, making a female or male baby. Spontaneous abortion: miscarriage o Male fetuses are more likely to be miscarried, and boys have a higher infant mortality rate. Boys still outnumber girls at birth and decrease to adulthood. Children are usually fertilized in the fallopian tube. Zona pellucida: the outer part of an egg. Hyaluronidase: an enzyme thinning the outer egg layer to prepare for fertilization. Having sex in the missionary position increases the chances of pregnancy. There are old folk’s tales couples believe to conceive a particular sex and some about children if they don’t get the sex they want. Infertility: inability to conceive kids or carry a pregnancy to term. More couples have fertility problems now because they are waiting longer to have kids. Many will end up conceiving eventually. Motility: how well the sperm can move. Autoimmune response: the natural production of some chemicals which can kill sperm. Sperm production can be altered by many things, such as hot baths or wearing tight clothes. Artificial insemination: sperm which is frozen and injected from the cismale partner or a donor. Endometriosis: embryo detaches from the uterine wall and implants somewhere else. laparoscopy: a procedure to check the cisfemale reproductive area for fertility problems Rubin test: inserting carbon dioxide into the cervix to check for fallopian tube blockage. hysterosalpingogram: die is injected into the body and xrayed to detect tubal blockage. In vitro fertilization (IVF): a method where the egg is fertilized in a Petri dish and implanted into the ciswoman. This often takes many tries because it doesn’t always work. Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT): the sperm and egg are both inserted into the ciswoman. Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT): the egg is fertilized in the Petri dish and then the fallopian tube. Donor IVF: one ciswoman’s egg is fertilized in a Petri dish and inserted into another ciswoman. This is often used with lesbian couples. Embryonic transfer: sperm is injected into a ciswoman, fertilized egg is removed and inserted into another ciswoman. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): this methods uses a needle to put a sperm cell into an egg. This method runs the risk of birth defects. Surrogate mother: a person who carries the fetus for a samesex or infertile couple. Adoption has become more diverse, with single, older, and gay people adopting. How a couple feels about pregnancy depends on how prepared they are for a child. The most obvious sign of pregnancy is usually missing a period, but some will spot during pregnancy, so this can be hard. People used to detect pregnancy with a ‘rabbit test’, where urine is injected into a rabbit to see it ovulates. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG): a hormone present in pregnant women, used to detect pregnancy. rd th Urine tests can detect pregnancy in the 3 week and blood tests can in the 8 day. Morning sickness: nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. o Morning sickness can reduce the risk of miscarriage and stillbirth. Miscarriage is often associated with feelings of loss. Sex is usually safe during pregnancy, as long as the mother has no history of miscarriage. Many women are afraid having sex will hurt the baby. The baby’s due date is calculated by Nagele’s rule, but most babies are not born on this exact date. Germinal stage: the period after conception before implantation, AKA the zygote or period of the ovum. Blastocyst: a group of cells after the zygote begins to divide. Embryonic disk: the middle part of the blastocyst Trophoblast: the outer part of the blastocyst where the sack, placenta, and umbilical chord develop. Embryonic stage: period from implantation to 2 months gestation. Cephalocaudal: development starting with the head. Proximodistal: development starting with the body. Ectoderm: the layer which develops the skin and nervous system. Neural tube: the tube where the neural system develops Endoderm: the layer which develops the lungs and digestive system. Mesoderm: the layer where bones and muscles develop. Amniotic sack: the sack in the uterus which contains the embryo/fetus. Amniotic fluid: fluid in the sack to protect the embryo/fetus Placenta: tissue where fluids are exchanged between the mother and embryo/fetus Umbilical cord: chord which attaches the embryo/fetus to the placenta. Age of viability: the age a fetus can live outside the womb. Cephalic presentation: when the baby turns to head and is ready for delivery. Breech presentation: when the baby is positioned the wrong way, usually feet first. People who don’t gain enough weight during pregnancy are at risk for have preterm or low birth weight babies. Gaining too much weight is linked with stillbirth. Teratogens: things which can damage the embryo or fetus. o Some of these include alcohol or aspirin. Critical period of vulnerability: when the fetus is most susceptible to environmental damage. Rubella: a viral disease which greatly harms a fetus if caught by the mother. o This is most dangerous when caught during the first 2 months of pregnancy. Syphilis: and STI which can cause stillbirth, the fetus dying inside the womb. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): a viral STI which can harm a fetal immune system. Toxemia: a condition with high blood pressure which can be life threatening. Ectopic pregnancy: the zygote implanting somewhere other than the uterus, usually the fallopian tube. o This is most common in older women o Symptoms include bleeding and cramping. Rh incompatibility: when bad antibodies are passed into the fetus, causing brain damage or death. Some prescription drugs, narcotics, tranquilizers, alcohol, marijuana, tobacco, and meth can have harmful effects on the fetus. Fetal alcohol syndrome: deformities of a baby due to the mother drinking during pregnancy. Xrays also increase the risk of fetal deformities. There are number of genetic problems a baby can have, such as Down syndrome. Boys are more prone to these problems. Braxton hick’s contractions: false contractions to prepare for labor. Prostaglandins: hormones which start contractions. Efface: thinning of the cervix Dilate: widening of the vaginal opening and cervix. Transition: moving from the first to second stage of labor. Episiotomy: cutting the crotch open to get the baby out. Perineum: the area between the vaginal and anal openings. Babies are no longer spanked to start breathing. Childbirth use to occur at home, but now occurs in the hospital. Very few women deliver babies with no anesthesia. General anesthesia: putting the mother completely to sleep to deliver. Local anesthetics: a variety of numbing drugs given to help with the labor pain. The most common is the epidural. Lamaze method: no drugs, just destress exercises, such as meditation. Cesarean section: surgically removing the baby through the abdomen. Anoxia: lack of oxygen during labor Preterm: babies born before 37 weeks. Postpartum: the period of time following birth. There is great debate if breastfeeding or bottle feeding is healthier.