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Hist. of Islam March 21, 23, and 25 notes

by: David Gray

Hist. of Islam March 21, 23, and 25 notes Hist 485-001

David Gray

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These notes cover material covered in class on the 21st, 23rd, and 25th of March.
Islamic Middle East from 600 C.E. to 1260 C.E.
Patricia Risso
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by David Gray on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 485-001 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Patricia Risso in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Islamic Middle East from 600 C.E. to 1260 C.E. in History at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 03/28/16
Monday Notes Shu‘Ūbiyya definition: In its simplest terms it was the anti­Arab sentiments expressed by non­Arab Muslims. Specifically, the Berber’s against the Muslim’s of Al­Andalus, and the Persians against the Umayyad’s. It appears only once in the Qur’an in 49:13 when it refers to ‘Shu’Ūb’ or ‘peoples’.  It was concerned with the ‘universality’ of Islam, as opposed to the ‘Arabness’ or ‘arrabiyya.  Contradictory as the Qur’an supports ‘Arabness’ in 12:2 and 16:103.  Persian’s and Berber’s used a form of ‘arabiyya, called Ūruba to distinguish themselves.  Persian and Berber clients of Islam were likely to drop their native language in favor of being more ‘Arab’.  Eventually Persian’s came to believe they were secure enough that they could make fun of Arab superiority and Arabness.  Notably carried out by Abu Sa’id al Rustami, significant as he is a Persian Arab who kept a Persian name.  Shu‘Ūbiyya poetry began to make fun of Islam  Sponsored Arabic rebuttal. al­Jahiz  died 869  Half­Arab Half­African  Established new form of prose called ‘adab’.  Was a Mutazali.  Wanted to meld Arab, Persian, and Greek culture.  Said people are different due to cultural backgrounds.  Believed every culture had virtues. Wednesday Notes Arabesque  European term for pre­Islamic artwork.  Means a scrolling geometric pattern.  Theoretically can be repeated to infinity. Iconoclasm  Mainly revolved around Byzantine Icons.  Seen as ‘windows to the divine’.  Many interpreted icons as idolatrous.  Iconoclasm was the smashing of icons.  Pro­Icon supporters eventually won as Empress Theodora reestablished the Orthodoxy.  Justinian II put image of Christ on one side of currency.  al­Malik replaced his image with calligraphy.  Muslim’s interested in representation. Aniconism  Avoiding representation of any living thing.  There was a hierarchy of what was not acceptable to represent.  Most excluded humans, some included animals, few also included vegetation.  Arab Muslim’s most interested with aniconism, very little on aniconism in Qur’an  Arabesque and calligraphy highly popular. Friday’s Notes Decentralization and Fragmentation Zanj Revolt   Zanj is the eastern coastline of Africa.  Term used to describe all Black African’s.  In ancient times, Southern Mesopotamia was fertile breadbasket, eventually became saline marshlands.  Abassid’s wanted to reclaim marshlands and turn it back into soil.  Abassid’s used large numbers of Zanj slaves and some Arabs to work the land.  Muhammad ibn­Ali (chosen name) molded discontent among slaves to join revolt.  Had banners with “Judgement to God Alone” that Khalawari used.  Revolt began in 869.  Initial Abassid response was small but grew until the revolt was put down in 883.  Historiography written by Theodore Noldeke saw revolt in terms of race and nationality.  M. Shaban said racial lines were not clear, looked for economic causation, said ibn­Ali had plan to abandon marshland project to set up trade­based society in Basra.  This was criticized for being too anachronistic.  Zanj Revolt had racial and economic overtones and economic motivation.  Powerful well­organized revolt.  Abassid’s won, reclamation project abandoned. Tulunids  Began by Ibn Tulun in Samara.  Abassid’s grouped Turkish soldiers into units which were sent around to various regions, Ibn Tulun was sent to Egypt and and made governor.  He controlled the troops as well as collected taxes.  Tulun was bilingual, he spoke both Arabic and Turkish.  Served in garrison town of Fustat.  Was military governor from 868­884.  When Abassid’s were distracted by Zanj Revolt, Ibn Tulun was able to take over Egypt.  Recognized Abassid Caliphs as legitimate.  Sent portion of tax money to Baghdad, this way, Abassid’s let him do as he wished.  Used the rest of the money to improve military.  Conquered Southern geographic Syria.  Includes Israel, Jordan, Palestine, Lebanon, and Syria.  Tulun spent money on army, not infrastructure.  Male relatives continued Tulun line till 905.  Ibn Tulun paved way for Egypt’s total independence from Baghdad.


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