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Psych 361, Week 11

by: BoseAmosun

Psych 361, Week 11 Psych 361

GPA 3.12

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About this Document

Chapter 5 & 6: Early Childhood Part III - Psychosocial Development
Developmental Psychology
Dr. Carrie Cuttler
Class Notes
Psych 361, developmental, Cuttler, Parenting, Styles, Psychosocial
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by BoseAmosun on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 361 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Carrie Cuttler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Washington State University.


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Date Created: 03/28/16
3.25.16   •   Dimensions  of  Parenting  Styles   o   Expressions  of  warmth  –  range  from  warm  and  affectionate  to  cold  and  critical   o   Strategies  for  discipline  –  range  from  explain  and  persuade  to  criticize  and   punish     o   Communication  –  range  from  listen  and  explain  to  order  and  demand  silence   o   Expectations  for  maturity  –  range  from  expect  responsibility  and  self-­‐control  to   understanding  need  for  guidance     •   Authoritarian  Parenting   o   Characterized  by  low  warmth,  high  behavioral  standards,  strict  punishment  of   misconduct  and  little  communication   §   Children  tend  to  be  more  guilty,  depressed  and  internalize  their   frustrations;  they  don’t  expect  children  to  voice  opinions   §   They  do  less  well  in  school,  have  low  self-­‐esteem  and  are  less  skilled  with   peers   §   May  be  subdued  or  show  high  levels  of  aggressiveness   §   Well  behaved  but  unhappy   •   Permissive  Parenting     o   Characterized  by  high  warmth  and  nurturance,  high  levels  of  communication  and   little  discipline,  guidance  or  control   §   Children  lack  self-­‐control  and  have  poor  emotional  regulation   §   They  do  slightly  worse  in  school,  are  more  aggressive,  less  mature,  less   likely  to  take  responsibility  and  are  less  independent   §   Not  very  well  behaved  but  unhappy     •   Authoritative  Parenting   o   Characterized  by  setting  limits  and  enforcing  rules  while  being  flexible  and   showing  high  levels  of  communication.  Use  inductive  discipline  (explain  why  a   behavior  is  wrong)  and  refrain  from  physical  punishment   §   Children  are  happy  and  articulate   §   Show  higher  self-­‐esteem,  more  independence,  more  altruistic  behavior   and  better  compliance   §   They  are  self-­‐confident,  achievement  oriented  and  tend  to  do  well  in   school     •   Neglectful/Uninvolved  Parenting   o   Characterized  by  indifference  toward  the  child  and  lack  of  awareness  of  what  is   going  on  in  the  child’s  life   §   Children  are  sad  and  lonely   §   They  show  disturbances  in  social  relationships,  are  more  impulsive  and   antisocial,  less  competent  and  less  achievement  oriented   •   Other  important  Factors  to  Consider   o   While  children  with  authoritative  parents  seem  to  show  the  best  outcomes  there   are  other  factors:   §   Child’s  temperament:  children  with  more  difficult  temperament  may   benefit  less  from  authoritative  parenting   §   Culture:  Asian  American  parents  display  more  authoritarian  style  and   tend  to  have  children  who  score  higher  on  measures  of  cognitive   competence     ClickerQ:  Bitstrip#1:  Authoritative   ClickerQ:  Birtstrip#2:  Permissive     ClickerQ:  Bitstrip#3:  Authoritarian     •   Discipline   o   Physical  punishment  –  slapping,  spanking  or  beating   §   Children  more  likely  to  have  delayed  theory  of  mind  and  tend  to  become   bullies,  delinquents  and  abusive  adults  who  are  less  likely  to  attend   college   o   Psychological  control  –  withdrawing  love  and  support,  using  shame  and  guilt  to   control  child   §   Reduced  academic  achievement,  emotional  intelligence,  creativity  and   social  acceptance  and  increased  depression  and  anxiety     o   Social  exclusion  –  using  time-­‐outs,  which  involve  separating  the  child  from  other   people  and  activities  for  a  short  time   §   Can  make  the  child  feel  rejected  and  child  may  not  understand  reason  for   time-­‐out   2   o   Induction  –  parents  talk  to  their  children  and  help  them  understand  why  their   behavior  was  wrong   §   Helps  children  internalize  standards   §   Children  more  likely  to  refrain  from  wrongdoing,  confess  and  repair   damage  after  misdeeds,  and  display  prosocial  behavior  because  they   have  positive  outcomes   •   Child  Maltreatment   o   Child  abuse  –  deliberate  action  that  is  harmful  to  a  child’s  physical,  emotional  or   sexual  well-­‐being   §   Preschoolers  and  school  age  children  more  likely   o   Child  neglect  –  failure  to  meet  a  child’s  basic  physical  or  emotional  needs   §   Infants  and  young  preschoolers  more  likely     ClickerQ:  Who  do  you  think  is  most  likely  to  commit  physical  abuse?  Fathers  and  Mothers   ClickerQ:  How  common  do  you  think  physical  abuse  is?  25%  of  children  are  physically  abused   •   Warning  Signs  of  Maltreatment   o   Repeated  injuries   o   Ongoing  physical  complaints  (stomachaches,  etc.)   o   Fantasy  play  with  dominant  themes  of  violence  or  sex   o   Slow  physical  growth     o   Reluctance  to  talk,  play  or  move   o   No  close  friendships  and  hostility  towards  others   o   Hyper-­‐vigilance  (fearful  and  startled  easily)   o   Frequent  absences  from  school   o   Frequent  changes  of  address   o   Expressions  of  fear  on  seeing  caregiver     •   Consequences  of  Maltreatment     o   Damage  to  peer  relationships  (less  friendly,  more  aggressive,   more  isolated)   §   Greater  social  deficits  in  children  who  were  neglected   o   Impaired  emotional  self-­‐regulation,  empathy,  sympathy,  self-­‐ concept   3   o   Cognitive  deficits  (impaired  working  memory  and  executive   functioning)   o   As  adults,  more  likely  to  engage  in  destructive  behaviors  (abuse   alcohol  or  drugs,  eat  too  little  or  too  much,  violent  crime,  abuse   their  children  or  partners)  and  are  at  higher  risk  for  emotional   disorders  and  suicide  attempts     •   Factors  Associated  with  Maltreatment     o   Low  education   o   Unemployment     o   Drug/alcohol  abuse           4  


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