Psych 361, Week 11
Psych 361, Week 11 Psych 361
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by BoseAmosun on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 361 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Carrie Cuttler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
3.25.16 • Dimensions of Parenting Styles o Expressions of warmth – range from warm and affectionate to cold and critical o Strategies for discipline – range from explain and persuade to criticize and punish o Communication – range from listen and explain to order and demand silence o Expectations for maturity – range from expect responsibility and self-‐control to understanding need for guidance • Authoritarian Parenting o Characterized by low warmth, high behavioral standards, strict punishment of misconduct and little communication § Children tend to be more guilty, depressed and internalize their frustrations; they don’t expect children to voice opinions § They do less well in school, have low self-‐esteem and are less skilled with peers § May be subdued or show high levels of aggressiveness § Well behaved but unhappy • Permissive Parenting o Characterized by high warmth and nurturance, high levels of communication and little discipline, guidance or control § Children lack self-‐control and have poor emotional regulation § They do slightly worse in school, are more aggressive, less mature, less likely to take responsibility and are less independent § Not very well behaved but unhappy • Authoritative Parenting o Characterized by setting limits and enforcing rules while being flexible and showing high levels of communication. Use inductive discipline (explain why a behavior is wrong) and refrain from physical punishment § Children are happy and articulate § Show higher self-‐esteem, more independence, more altruistic behavior and better compliance § They are self-‐confident, achievement oriented and tend to do well in school • Neglectful/Uninvolved Parenting o Characterized by indifference toward the child and lack of awareness of what is going on in the child’s life § Children are sad and lonely § They show disturbances in social relationships, are more impulsive and antisocial, less competent and less achievement oriented • Other important Factors to Consider o While children with authoritative parents seem to show the best outcomes there are other factors: § Child’s temperament: children with more difficult temperament may benefit less from authoritative parenting § Culture: Asian American parents display more authoritarian style and tend to have children who score higher on measures of cognitive competence ClickerQ: Bitstrip#1: Authoritative ClickerQ: Birtstrip#2: Permissive ClickerQ: Bitstrip#3: Authoritarian • Discipline o Physical punishment – slapping, spanking or beating § Children more likely to have delayed theory of mind and tend to become bullies, delinquents and abusive adults who are less likely to attend college o Psychological control – withdrawing love and support, using shame and guilt to control child § Reduced academic achievement, emotional intelligence, creativity and social acceptance and increased depression and anxiety o Social exclusion – using time-‐outs, which involve separating the child from other people and activities for a short time § Can make the child feel rejected and child may not understand reason for time-‐out 2 o Induction – parents talk to their children and help them understand why their behavior was wrong § Helps children internalize standards § Children more likely to refrain from wrongdoing, confess and repair damage after misdeeds, and display prosocial behavior because they have positive outcomes • Child Maltreatment o Child abuse – deliberate action that is harmful to a child’s physical, emotional or sexual well-‐being § Preschoolers and school age children more likely o Child neglect – failure to meet a child’s basic physical or emotional needs § Infants and young preschoolers more likely ClickerQ: Who do you think is most likely to commit physical abuse? Fathers and Mothers ClickerQ: How common do you think physical abuse is? 25% of children are physically abused • Warning Signs of Maltreatment o Repeated injuries o Ongoing physical complaints (stomachaches, etc.) o Fantasy play with dominant themes of violence or sex o Slow physical growth o Reluctance to talk, play or move o No close friendships and hostility towards others o Hyper-‐vigilance (fearful and startled easily) o Frequent absences from school o Frequent changes of address o Expressions of fear on seeing caregiver • Consequences of Maltreatment o Damage to peer relationships (less friendly, more aggressive, more isolated) § Greater social deficits in children who were neglected o Impaired emotional self-‐regulation, empathy, sympathy, self-‐ concept 3 o Cognitive deficits (impaired working memory and executive functioning) o As adults, more likely to engage in destructive behaviors (abuse alcohol or drugs, eat too little or too much, violent crime, abuse their children or partners) and are at higher risk for emotional disorders and suicide attempts • Factors Associated with Maltreatment o Low education o Unemployment o Drug/alcohol abuse 4
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