Psych100B Day 1 Lecture Notes
Psych100B Day 1 Lecture Notes Psych 100B
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by rallen17 Notetaker on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 100B at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Darvick, E.R. Fourquet, N. Middlebrooks, C.D. in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychology in Psychlogy at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
Housekeeping 11 or 12th edition textbook is fine go to different lab if you miss your own lab, email TA beforehand, you can turn in assignment ahead of time, there is an absence excuse form and it will be reviewed at the end of the quarter to excuse missed points and missed quizzes. material from quizzes come from lecture final: practice exams on ccle, review session the week before one extra credit through sona system Actual Content of Course data: observations from experience (personal admission, physiological, etc) o pieces of information from your experience theory/hypothesis o theory: body of statements that organization and explain the data that is observed o hypothesis: prediction for situations that we don't have data for o example: you have noticed that when you work in a group, people slack off compared to when they work alone. So this is our theory (diffusion of responsibility). You want to know if this is something really going on in the real world. You want to collect some data. We test to see if this happens in an emergency situation (or when people are in a group in a social situation). Data now influences our theory. This is a circular process. Now collect more data (circular) we constantly collect data to modify our theory we are constantly looking at data and trying to fit it with theory another example: Mary isn't in class today and has missed many first days of school. This data can then inform our theory. So now we collect more data circular process. We now have to translate our theory into measurable situation (we have to be able to measure this behavior) Data > Interpret > Theory/Hypothesis > measurable situation > repeat in circle errors can be made in any step of this research methods: allows us to decrease the amount of errors that we make strict methodologies: allows to to be more precise ideally: data is objective and controlled errors: o example: errors in data: look at undergraduate opinion of presidential candidates. get into groups of 5 and talk about political views. We conclude that male upper is more likely to be republican. Problems: our sample is not representative. Or situation is out of control some people were scared to speak up. This study was not controlled and not subjective. Therefore it is not informative error in data collection o example: errors in interpretation. music improves mental performance. Listen then perform spatial IQ test. They found that IQ was higher than when you listened to Mozart. They concluded that classical music makes you smarter. Problem: you can't make that conclusion from the data. because there is so many potential for error, we never say that theory is proven, only disproven or supported. replication o literal replication: do the exact same study again o conceptual replication: we try to provide additional confirmation for the hypothesis but in a different way example: instead do surgeons take on more responsibility when in a group example: test other types of IQ. test ability to use may. use different types subjects, different material, use different conditions, psychology: the study of mental processes and behavior belief vs scientific explanation o belief: no evidence necessary. maintained even when there is counter evidence based on authority example: when you go out without sweater, you catch a cold. Maintained even with counter evidence. example: when you get a cold chicken soup cures that. Comes from tradition. people don't stop to questions beliefs o scientific explanation: opposite of belief empirical evidence that's based on experiences changed with counter evidence empirical evidence: unbiased information based on unbiased information allows us to start with belief and then with scientific method we test it. we must use experience and not faith to understand the world o example: mom said chocolate made brother act crazy. This is not empirical evidence. this is biased. this is belief. o question: how to we use scientific method to get scientific explanation= this course. There are many methodologies..... Methodologies o Correlation: an intuition that TV affects kid's behavior commercials affect their buying behavior we are interested whether violence on TV affects children's aggressive behavior example: something asks how much violent TV your child watches per day you get data in hours. we also ask them how aggressive you rate your child. It looks like there is a relation. This is a correlation. We can predict how aggressive they will be correlation allows us to make predictions two variables correlation gives names for these two variables 1st: predictor variable 2nd: criterion variable. example: predictor is TV violence. Criterion is aggressive behavior predictor x variable criterion y variable. we operationally defined TV violence as number of hours watched types of correlations positive: as X increases, so does Y example: shoe size and reading level negative: as X increases, Y decreases example: sleep and coffee unrelated: variables are not related example: GPA and commute. correlation coefficient two elements; sign and actual value sign positive sign: positive correlation negative sign: negative correlation actual value strength not affected by sign the problem: there are many explanations of why these two variables are related one explanation; A causes B. other explanation: B causes A third: C causes A/B example: ash trays in house and lung cancer issue with correlation. we will never know what the truth is with correlation directionality problem we can only show relationship, make prediction, directionality problem (or Third variable problem): we can't make any casual conclusions example: more sex you have the younger you are. reality: the more sex you have, the younger you look. this doesn't mean correlations shouldn’t be used
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