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Guest Lectureer

by: rallen17 Notetaker

Guest Lectureer Psych 120A

rallen17 Notetaker

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About this Document

These notes cover the guest speaker that came into class. These notes are useful for the upcoming essay.
Cognitive Psychology
Castel, A.D
Class Notes
guest lecture
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by rallen17 Notetaker on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 120A at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Castel, A.D in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.


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Date Created: 03/28/16
120A Week 1 Wednesday Guest Lecturer: Veronica Yan What can cognitive psychology teach me about how to learn?  Activity rd o You are asked to recall whether a word has a 3 letter vowel or if it is a living thing o deeper level processing is more memorable o how you process words tells you how memorable it will be o knowing that you will be tested on words does not affect whether learning will happen o being motivated isn’t just enough (not just getting to the gym) o YOU MUST USE EFFECTIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES  Common study habits o Rereading o Taking practice exams o Cram o Study in one place o If I learn in the right way, learning will be easy o So what leads to long term learning?  Benefits of studying? o Given passage of sun and passage of sea otters  They studied same text fro 20 minutes rereading.  Other group given one sheet then asked to rewrite  After five minutes: those that studied more remembered more  After a week: you get complete reversal of pattern  Testing yourself does more for you than rereading (rewriting)  Retrieval is a “memory modifier” o Retrieval itself has consequences for our memories o Memories that get retrived get strengthened o Skimming passively is weaker than recalling o What you recall becomes strengthened  What about errors o What is retrieved becomes strengthened o Consequences of making errors  Is it detrimental or not? o Study  Participants given related word pairs  Final test: they are just shown cue words and they have to recall the other word  Some people only study full pairs  Studying and guessing and making an error makes huge different in remembering rather than just studying paris  Take time to create interference (create wrong answer) and take time to test self  Act of activating knowdlege helps you better encode information  Sematic activation hypothesis: in tryig to come up with answer, you are activiating info about new concept o You can better encode that in prior knowledge  Memory is highly associative netword  Productith failure o 7 grade classroom experiment  experiment group: productive failure  the students are given a complicated questions and the students are constantly generating error  then the teacher gives instruction  control group: “directed instruction” (DI)  7 periods of cycing through lectures, practice , homework, and feedback  You’d find that classrooms failing to come up with wrong answer are better equipped for future problens  Testng involves retrieval  Make connections with pre existing information  be active! Generate! o Retrieve info from memory o Generation o Ask yourself why o Teaching!  What leads to long term learning? o active engagement, elaboration, reorganizing, retrival  to cram or not to cram o learning more does not maen put in more study times o spaced in better  why is spacing good fro learning? o Attention: massed repitions gets boring o Variability: each presentation more likely to be encoded in a slightly different sate when repritions spaced apart in time o Retrivel or reminding effect are allowed with forgetting o Spacing out doesn’t FEEL as good but act of retrival is best! o Allowing yourself to forgoet allows you to learn  Learning versus performance o Learning: knowledge that is both durable and flexible o Must be inferred after training o Performance  What can be observed and measured during training or instruction  May not be indicative of long-term learning  Metacognition o “thinking about our thinking” o Study of memory: how does our memory work o Study of metamemory: how do people think their memories work o Metacognition can be wrong!  We often use wrong index to judge o Examples of metacognition  What is important to study  Do I know it yet  Will I remmebre this later  When should I study  What have we learned so far o Testing effect o Pretesting effect o Generation o Spacing o Teach others o All these are desirable difficulties” o Leaning strategies that make learning feel more effortful and may appear tos lwod own the rate of acquisition o Learning should not be made more easy but more effortful o Take practice tests during learning not after  study in multiple places o things need to be easy recalled in different situations o memory is cue dependent  different learning styles o visual vs auditory o saying that you are a visual learner is bad because then you will shallowly process visual things o there is no evidence to support this belief  individual differences do matter and matter greatly o new learning builds and depends on old learning o there are strategies that can improve learning for all learners o


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