Guest Lectureer Psych 120A
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by rallen17 Notetaker on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 120A at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Castel, A.D in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
120A Week 1 Wednesday Guest Lecturer: Veronica Yan What can cognitive psychology teach me about how to learn? Activity rd o You are asked to recall whether a word has a 3 letter vowel or if it is a living thing o deeper level processing is more memorable o how you process words tells you how memorable it will be o knowing that you will be tested on words does not affect whether learning will happen o being motivated isn’t just enough (not just getting to the gym) o YOU MUST USE EFFECTIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES Common study habits o Rereading o Taking practice exams o Cram o Study in one place o If I learn in the right way, learning will be easy o So what leads to long term learning? Benefits of studying? o Given passage of sun and passage of sea otters They studied same text fro 20 minutes rereading. Other group given one sheet then asked to rewrite After five minutes: those that studied more remembered more After a week: you get complete reversal of pattern Testing yourself does more for you than rereading (rewriting) Retrieval is a “memory modifier” o Retrieval itself has consequences for our memories o Memories that get retrived get strengthened o Skimming passively is weaker than recalling o What you recall becomes strengthened What about errors o What is retrieved becomes strengthened o Consequences of making errors Is it detrimental or not? o Study Participants given related word pairs Final test: they are just shown cue words and they have to recall the other word Some people only study full pairs Studying and guessing and making an error makes huge different in remembering rather than just studying paris Take time to create interference (create wrong answer) and take time to test self Act of activating knowdlege helps you better encode information Sematic activation hypothesis: in tryig to come up with answer, you are activiating info about new concept o You can better encode that in prior knowledge Memory is highly associative netword Productith failure o 7 grade classroom experiment experiment group: productive failure the students are given a complicated questions and the students are constantly generating error then the teacher gives instruction control group: “directed instruction” (DI) 7 periods of cycing through lectures, practice , homework, and feedback You’d find that classrooms failing to come up with wrong answer are better equipped for future problens Testng involves retrieval Make connections with pre existing information be active! Generate! o Retrieve info from memory o Generation o Ask yourself why o Teaching! What leads to long term learning? o active engagement, elaboration, reorganizing, retrival to cram or not to cram o learning more does not maen put in more study times o spaced in better why is spacing good fro learning? o Attention: massed repitions gets boring o Variability: each presentation more likely to be encoded in a slightly different sate when repritions spaced apart in time o Retrivel or reminding effect are allowed with forgetting o Spacing out doesn’t FEEL as good but act of retrival is best! o Allowing yourself to forgoet allows you to learn Learning versus performance o Learning: knowledge that is both durable and flexible o Must be inferred after training o Performance What can be observed and measured during training or instruction May not be indicative of long-term learning Metacognition o “thinking about our thinking” o Study of memory: how does our memory work o Study of metamemory: how do people think their memories work o Metacognition can be wrong! We often use wrong index to judge o Examples of metacognition What is important to study Do I know it yet Will I remmebre this later When should I study What have we learned so far o Testing effect o Pretesting effect o Generation o Spacing o Teach others o All these are desirable difficulties” o Leaning strategies that make learning feel more effortful and may appear tos lwod own the rate of acquisition o Learning should not be made more easy but more effortful o Take practice tests during learning not after study in multiple places o things need to be easy recalled in different situations o memory is cue dependent different learning styles o visual vs auditory o saying that you are a visual learner is bad because then you will shallowly process visual things o there is no evidence to support this belief individual differences do matter and matter greatly o new learning builds and depends on old learning o there are strategies that can improve learning for all learners o
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