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Chapter 2 Notes

by: Emily Lowe

Chapter 2 Notes PSYC2012

Emily Lowe
GPA 3.356
Social Psychology
Dr. Duval

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Chapter 2 reading notes
Social Psychology
Dr. Duval
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This 3 page Reader was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Sunday January 25, 2015. The Reader belongs to PSYC2012 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Duval in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 138 views.


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Date Created: 01/25/15
Tuesday January 20 2015 Social Psychology Reading Chapter 2 Methodology FOCUS QUESTIONS How do researchers develop hypotheses and theories What are strengthsweaknesses of various research designs used by social psychologists What impact do crosscultural studies the evolutionary approach and research in social neuroscience have on the way in which scientists investigate social behavior What is the basic dilemma of the social psychologist and how do social psychologists solve this dilemma 2 examples are used to discuss research types 1 Does pornography lead to rape and other violent crimes 2 Does living in metropolis dehumanize us and lead to the bystander effect bystander effect when one witnesses something and ignores it does not help or intervene in any way tied to diffusion of responsibility diffusion of responsibility someone else haswill intervene so I don39t have to Hindsight Bias people exaggerate what they could have predicted after learning the outcome this ties to most findings in social psychology specifically Hypothesis the first thing a researcher starts with a hunch they might have commonly stem from one being dissatisfied with accepted worktheory of the day also can stem from personal experienceobservation Observational Description What is the nature of the phenomenon Correlational Prediction From knowing X can we predict Y Experimental ls variable X a cause of Y Causality Tuesday January 20 2015 Observational Method researcher simply observes natural settingsactions without interfering and records their findings Examples of observational methods Ethnography attempting to understand a group by observing it from the inside without bias important to have interjudge reliability lnterjudge Reliability level of agreement between 2 people who independently observe and code a set of data simply this ensures that the results from one researcher is not biased because another researcher found the same thing Archival Analysis researcher studies accumulated documentsarchives of a culture Limits of the observation method If a behavior only occurs rarely it is hard to observe The facts of documents may be incorrect leading to false results Social researchers aim to predictexplain behavior which cannot be done very efficiently with this research method Correlational Method the relationship between 2 variables is systematically measured and assessed leads to a correlation coefficient Correlation Coefficient measures the strength and direction of the relationship between the variables Examples of correlational methods Surveys when a researcher asks a representative sample of people questions about attitudesbehavior must have random selection Random Selection how researchers choose participants in a way that the sample is ensured to be a representative sample of the population of interest Limitations of Surveys accuracy of answers is in question Limits of the correlational method Correlation does not imply causation which means you cannot say variable X causes variable Y Tuesday January 20 2015 Experimental Method researcher randomly assigns participants to groups that each have different conditions ensuring all conditions are the same except for the one being studied the independent variable implies causation Causation one variable causes the outcome Independent Variable IV the variable the researcher is manipulating Dependent Variable DV the variable the researcher predicts will be effected by the independent variable the result of the IV lnternal Validity in Experiments controlling everythingkeeping all other factors consistent besides the IV random assignment helps researchers do this Random Assignment to Condition ensures all participants have an equal chance of being placed into any group of the experiment this makes sure differences in personalities are relatively equal Probability Level pvalue statistical calculation that measures how likely it is that the results occurred by chance and not due to the lVDV if the results are significant trustworthy the pvalue will be less that 5 in 100 or 05


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