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Week 11 Notes

by: jjb13n

Week 11 Notes PSY 4930

GPA 2.54

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Affective Neuroscience
Dr. Wen Li
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Affective Neuroscience

Popular in Psychlogy

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by jjb13n on Wednesday November 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 4930 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Wen Li in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Affective Neuroscience in Psychlogy at Florida State University.


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Date Created: 11/11/15
Week 11 Notes    First Emotions  ● Sensitive Period  ○ During the sensitive period, rat pups learn to prefer the CS (associated with  shock) than CS­ (esp. in the presence of the mother)  ○ Amygdala not fully developed; fear circuit not well connected  ○ Postnatal­day (PN)­ 9 pups trained with paired odor–shock demonstrated a  subsequent odor preference compared with PN9 controls; older pups showed  learned odor aversions  ○ They remember: Pups trained on PN9 continued to show an odor preference for  CS+ odor, even at an age when they could learn an odor aversion  ● Stress Hyporesponsive Period  ○ Low HPA function, low cortisone (PN4­14). (high CORT in neonates causes  decreased mitosis, myelination and altered granule cell genesis)  ■ CORT is able to switch whether an infant learns an aversion or preference  ● Aversive experiences first induce preference learning, replaced by aversive learning post  sensitive period; Cortisone modulates this process      Definitions and Categories of Learning    ● Nonassociative Learning: Sensitization and Habituation (Desensitization)  ● Associative Learning  ○ Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning  ■ Unconditioned Stimulus (naturally, biologically potent (negative/positive)  stimulus that elicits strong responses without learning  ■ Unconditioned Response (automatic response elicited by an unconditioned  stimulus)  ■ Conditioned Stimulus (initially neutral stimulus that elicits no response on  its own. When paired with an unconditioned stimulus, learning occurs  ■ Conditioned Response (Learned response elicited by the Conditioned  Stimulus (in the absence of the UCS)  ○ Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning  ■ Primary Reinforcement  ■ Secondary Reinforcement  ■ Positive/Negative Reinforcement  ■ Positive/Negative Punishment  ● Cognitive Learning (conceptual/symbolic)  ● Observational (Vicarious) Learning  ● Social Learning (Bandura)  ● Extinction Learning  ○ Repeated presentation of CS+ without US attenuates and eventually eliminates  CR  ○ Inhibitory learning is NOT an erasure of acquired fear  ■ Not forgetting but new learning  ○ Two parallel memories/symbols (old and new)  ■ Generates inhibitory memory, which temporarily suppresses the  expression of the fear association  ○ Unstable, not permanent  ○ Multiple types of relapse ­­­>fear memory is not erased but suppressed by a new  rule (when it fails to suppress)      Structures and Circuits & Molecular and Neural Mechanism Involved in Fear Learning   ● Hippocampus (explicit learning)  ● Amygdala (Associative & Extinction Learning)  ○ Emotional Learning (output to hippocampus)  ○ Critical for fear learning/conditioning acquisition  ■ Sensory information inputs to Lateral Nucleus (LA); Auditory inputs to  LA come from both thalamus and cortex  ■ More complex stimulus comes from cortical pathway (cortex)  ■ Subcortical (thalamus) pathway is faster  ■ B and AB further process association between learned cue and US  ■ Output leaves central nucleus (CE), eliciting a response  ■ The CS+ and US inputs converge in the Lateral nucleus (LA) of the  amygdala, which induces associative responses  ● Damage to LA impairs fear learning and consolidation  ■ Central Nuclues (CE) is the port to fear expression  ● Damage to CE interferes with expression of fear response  ● CE receives inputs from LA, B and AB: mediates the expression of  conditioned fear responses    ● vmPFC (Associative & Extinction Learning)  ○ Extinction Learning  ■ Involves prefrontal downregulation of amygdala output, ​ w/ mPFC neurons  exciting GABAergic neurons within the basolateral complex of amygdala  or nearby intercalated cells (ITC), and these, in turn, inhibiting output  from the central nucleus of amygdala  ■ Lesions of ventromedial prefrontal cortex selectively prolong extinction of  conditioned fear  ● Sensory Cortex (Associative & Extinction Learning)  ○ Long­term memory (modality­specific)  ● Basal Ganglia (motor & implicit learning)  ● Relapse   ○ Reinstatement  ■ US presentation ­­­> CS­CR  ○ Renewal  ■ Extinction context­­A  ■ B ­­­> CS­CR    ○ Spontaneous Recovery  ■ Extinction­­­Time 1  ■ Time 2 (a month) ­­­> CS­CR  ○ Reacquisition  ■ CS+ with US ­­­>CS­CR (requires a few trials; saving)          Molecular Mechanisms of Fear Learning  ● Learning Principles:   ○ Hebb’s Rule  ■ “Cells that fire together, wire together”  ■ Described in neural networks: w​ i j ​i​j ● in which a change in the strength (i.e.the weight,wij) of a  connections is a function of the pre (i.e.xi) – and postsnaptic  (i.e.xj) neural activities    ○ Stent’s Rule  ■ Cells that fire out of sync, lose their link  ● LTP  ○ Long­lasting enhancement in post­synaptic potential after repeated stimulation  ­­­> strengthened synapse  ○ Observed in:  ■ Hippocampus  ■ Cerebral Cortex  ■ Amygdala  ■ Cerebellum  ○ Mechanims:  ■ ↑ dendritic receptors  ■ ↑ neurotransmitter  ■ ↑ gene expression and protein synthesis  ● LDP  ○ Long­lasting suppression in post­synaptic potential after little stimulation ­­­>  weakened synapse  ○ Mechanisms:  ■ ↓ dendritic receptors  ■ ↓ pre­synaptic neurotransmitter    Neural Circuitries of Fear Learning  ● Amygdala  ○ Basolateral Amygdala: 80% Glutamatergic (excitatory) pyramidal cells; 20%  GABAergic (inhibitory) interneurons, similar to the cortex  ○ Amygdala receives info about all sensory modalities, generally, not directly from  primary sensory areas but after a cascade of corticocortical projections involving  associative cortical areas  ○ Local GABAergic inhibitory interneurons ​ hyperpolarize​ action potentials of  glutamatergic (excitatory) pyramidal cells  ● Thalamus  ○ MG (medial geniculate nucleus)   ○ MGm/PIN: multimodel (CS+US), diverse tuning ­­­> LA, primary and higher­order auditory  cortex; *long­term RF plasticity  ○ MGv: narrow tuning, tonotopy ­­­> primary auditory cortex;*short­term RF  plasticity   ● Sensory Cortex  ○ Primary  ■ Narrow tuning, tonotopy  ■ Long­term CS frequency­specific tuning of receptive field (RF)    ■ Mechanism: US↑cholinergic input to the cortex ­­­> release inhibition on  pyramidal neurons ­­­> ↑CS­evoked neuronal firing  ○ Amygdala send feedback projections to the sensory cortex all levels of the   ventral stream  ○ Inject fluorescent tracers in the cortex ­­­> identify retrogradely labeled cells in  the amygdala       Fear Learning in Psychopathology (and Anxious Temperament)   ● Anxiety amplifies fear learning and response  ● Individuals high in trait anxiety showed increased amygdala responsivity to fear cues  ○ This was linked to stronger initial SCR acquisition to these cues 


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