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This 9 page Reader was uploaded by Addison Wooden on Wednesday November 11, 2015. The Reader belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.
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Date Created: 11/11/15
Public Speaking 10/21/2015 ▯ Movements, gestures and expressions 1. Movement communicates 2. Facial expressions convey much 3. Words and actions should work together 4. Audiences trust nonverbal behavior most 5. Movements should be: a. Natural b. Spontaneous Strive for an effective speaking voice 1. Use voice to: a. Emphasize key ideas b. Display emotion c. Establish Commitment d. Enhance credibility 2. Pitch: a. Highness or lowness of voice b. Upward or downward infection 3. Monotone: a. Unvarying and BORING 4. Tension can raise pitch Practice Your Speech 1. Deliver full speech aloud with outline 2. Practice major sections repeatedly 3. Take breaks 4. Practice in front if others 5. Ask for feedback 6. Incorporate visual aids Speaking Extemporaneously 1. Effective is most situations 2. Is NOT impromptu 3. Requires thorough research, organization, preparation, and practice. The manuscript Speech 1. Carefully prepared and delivered as written 2. Usually for formal settings 3. Allows for considerable control a. Precise Timing b. Carefully chosen words or phrasing Manuscript Speech Guidelines 1. Use for right reasons 2. Use good oral style 3. Practice extensively The memorized speech 1. For some formal, ceremonial occasions 2. Focus on specific purpose and key ideas 3. Speak in the moment 4. Practice, Practice, Practice Preparing For question and answer 1. Expect questions on controversial ideas 2. Anticipate challenges and how you’ll respond 3. Explain difficult concepts with extra samples 4. Be familiar with sources Conduction the Q&A Period 1. Decide where you will stand a. Behind podium conveys formality b. Beside podium encourages interaction 2. Listen carefully to each question 3. Repeat questions so others hear it 4. Don’t allow one person to dominate 5. Don’t try to fake it. 6. Respect time limits ▯ Providing Support Visual can function as evidence Visuals can simplify data Graphs Make numbers and statistics easy to understand Line Graphs Bar Graphs Models Can be useful 3D Displays Can be professionals Can often be borrowed Audio and video materials Some topics work with a still image; others need moving pictures Media- Oriented Make sure it’s an aid Does it: Add clarity? Using a Prop Visual or audio that enlivens presentations Not integral to success May be appropriate if not distracting Employ Silence Avoid using to many visuals or sounds Use a blank slide to focus audience Preview in Venue Visit the site of the speech, if possible Become familiar with the equipment Have everything set to go Set up before the speech Stay connected with listeners Talk to the audience, not your aid Honoring Heroes Emphasizes character and personal virtue Remembers ideals of life well lived Educates by examining life lessons Celebrating Shared Beliefs and Values Shared Beliefs may be: Philosophical or practical Religious or political Social and economic Different groups may not share the same virtues Social Values in Ceremonial Speaking Articulate and reinforce existing social values Aim for eloquence Remind listeners of: Shared Values Traditions Aspirations ▯ Speech of Introduction May sound informative Welcome the speaker Reinforce speaker’s ethos Prepare the audience for the speech Welcome and farewell Address Welcome Visitors Offer tips to make most of visit Express gratitude in short farewell For both: Write Carefully Adapt to audience Presentation and Acceptance May or may not be formal Usually Brief Fit tone and language to then occasion ▯ Commemoration Speeches Celebrates a graduation Should be upbeat/ positive Should reflect larger significance ▯ Tributes and Eulogies Pay tribute and reinforce values Define “virtue” and “character” Highlight peoples life’s The After Dinner Speech Often meant to entertain, but, may address serious topics Should be lively and not to long Should give the audience something to think about or remember Sermons May or may not be epideictic: When seeking coverts, we are persuading Vivid Language and Imagery Use concrete, specific language for imagery and impact Choose words carefully Rhythm and Cadence Write the speech to “flow” Strive for a smooth, balanced rhythm Use devices for more poetic rhythm Forms of Public Deliberation Large formal setting Smaller community settings Private person to person Open Forums Engaging in Dialogue Respectful dialogue is more successful The objective is to think together A spirit of equality is important Problem solving is usually at the center Mutual understanding of common purpose is the goal Potential Problems Participants expectations Format used Facilitators Skills