BSC 101 Helms Week 12 Lecture Notes 11/2-11/6
BSC 101 Helms Week 12 Lecture Notes 11/2-11/6 BSC 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Daniel Hemenway on Wednesday November 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 101 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Helms in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Concepts in Biology in Biological Sciences at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 11/11/15
BSC 101 Helms 112116 Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 190 Enzymes chemically digest food 0 Enzyme active site Substrate binds to enzyme Substrate is converted to products Products are released Substrate Starch Hydrolysis Using water to break Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 191 More about enzymes Different enzymes break down different macromolecules Secreted by various different organs Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 192 A generalized mammalian digestive system Tube from start to finish Begins with mouth and ends with anus Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 193 Mouth Teeth Shred food and mix it in with saliva Salivary glands produce mucus and enzymes that begin digestion Mucus Water and enzymes Complex carbohydrates Pharynx the quotthroatquot Esophagus Connection between esophagus back of oral cavity and nasal cavity Both respiratory and digestive systems Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 194 Stomach Muscular sack Mixing food Mixes with gastric hydrochloric acid Produces Pepsin digest protein Hydrolysis use water to break apart As the mixture of gastric juice and food khyme enters the small intestine Liver bile produced Gall bladder bile storage BSC 101 Helms 112116 Pancreas Makes pancreatic juice rest of enzymes necessary to break down rest of macromolecules Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 195 Bile Breaks down fat Breaks it down so there is greater surface area for it to be broken down by enzymes Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 196 Small intestine Where end of chemical digestion takes place Where absorption takes place Finishes digestion Villi Fingerlike projections of cells that are facing the inside of he small intestine Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 197 Large intestine also called the colon Reduces the amount of water in our feces Feces Mass of solid undigested matter eliminated from the body Chapter 20 Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 199 MRSA methicillin resistant Staphyloccus aureus Antibiotic resistance Redness Swelling Infection ability of organism to enter and to cause disease Disease Condition that infects infected organisms Physical set of symptoms redness swelling puss Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 200 Antibiotics exert strong selective pressure on bacterial populations Beware of the common misconception Bacteria don t adapt to drugs the resistance has to already be present in the gene pool Does this mean we shouldn t ever use antibiotics No we should use them when they are absolutely needed BSC 101 Helms 112116 Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 201 Recall from earlier chapters that bacteria are prokaryotic Prokaryotic simple no membrane bound organelles They do have organelles made of protein All bacteria have a cell wall and some have a capsule Proteins comprising these are good for antibiotics Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 202 Peptidoglycan Highly cross linked to form a rigid structure forms cell wall of bacterium a Capsule b Biofilm Survival and transmission of pathogens Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 203 Bacterial Growth Binary Fission During cell division plasmids replicate Plasmids small circular piece of DNA not part of chromosome found in bacteria Plasmids can be exchanged between bacteria