African Slave Trade Nov 9-11
African Slave Trade Nov 9-11 HIST 1010 - 001
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaytlyn Notetaker on Wednesday November 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1010 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Donna Jean Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see World History I in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 11/11/15
Africa and the slave trade I. Slavery in World History: insider vs outsider Slavery goes back to the earliest civilizations; this is a global historical phenomenon. There is slavery in Europe at this time and many Europeans have lived in another form of servitude; serfdom. Reason for the slave trade in America was the arrival and policies of Europeans in the Americas for they decimated native populations so they needed African slaves. One of the biggest suppliers of slaves was warfare (this is a historical thing everywhere). Europeans didn’t enslave Europeans (cheaper and easier) likely because insider vs outsider. Insider: people historically tend not to enslave their own people so they turn to outsiders; for Europeans, the notion of insiders was continent wide including many culture, governments, etc. no matter how much they fight with one another. In Africa there is already slavery and insider is more specific and more identified and defined by family, tribes, kingdoms, etc. they’re very much more focused geographically. When Africans enslaved Africans, the slaves were taken from rival states and communities. Main Points: Slavery started when civilization started. Slave trade in Americas was due to European arrival and policies as well as decimation of indigenous population (killed off). One of biggest suppliers of slave is warfare. Europeans didn’t enslave their own so they used Africans because Europeans are insiders and Africans are outsiders. In Africa there is slavery and their version of insiders are their tribes or kingdoms (more specific). Slaves were taken from rivals in Africa. II. Slave trade in Africa A. Slavery in Africa B. Muslim slave trade C. European Trade 1. Countries Involved 2. Systems and methods 3. African merchants 4. Demographics 5. Transport i. Senegambia ii. Kongo iii. Asante Empire iv. Triangular Trade v. Diaspora African slaves were used for normal slave duties as well as making armies in Africa. Arabs purchased slaves from West Africa and transported them to North Africa, Middle East and America. Arab trader preferred women as slaves because they were domestic servants, concubines, etc. When Europeans arrive, it was Portugal that th dominated slave trade for a long time. 18 century, Britain dominated. Sometimes Europeans worked with African governments and African merchants. Europeans had slave trading forts to have a place of permanent operation and a place to hold slaves to keep them until ships arrive; very much like dungeons. The center of slave trade shifted and they started selling slaves from ships according to market and locations. A part of West Africa under the Songhai Empire became a hub of slave trade. There were governments that made money off of taxing slave trade. The Asante Empire basically came into existence off of revenue made from taxing slaves because people have to cross their territory to get to shore. Whether or not Europeans bought with governments or merchants, not everyone was involved like the Kongo who resisted. Triangle Trade was the Atlantic slave trade route. Europeans took manufactured goods like irons, textiles, guns, rum, etc. to Africa to sell and undercut the industries. So from there they took slaves to America and then from America, raw materials were taken to Europe to make manufactured goods. If you were resistant in Africa and Europeans go somewhere else to a neighbor enemy kingdom and sold them guns, they’re likely to be invaded and take their people as slaves and sold into slavery. Europeans played this in Africa a lot. Africans controlled negotiations and dictated terms to Europeans but to ensure there is a steady slave populations, they sold guns to keep kingdoms on their toes and active. Male slaves in their twenties was prime to Europeans for sugar, cotton and tobacco plantations. Roughly 12 million Africans were taken to America which is the diaspora. Diaspora is the forced dispersal of a group of people beyond their homeland and is associated with misfortune and devastation. The conditions of transport across the Atlantic was horrifying and many died. They were fed spoiled food and contaminated water and are left in filth and diseases. They are crammed below deck shoulder to shoulder for the journey. Huge numbers of slaves went to Brazil and the Caribbean. Smaller amounts went to North America and Europe. End of 18 century is when abolition became an issue in Europe. Many pieces of art were produced that were full of emotion. Main Points: African slaves were used for normal duties and for armies in Africa. Arabs started the slave trade but unlike Europeans who prefer young men, Arabs preferred women. Portugal dominated slave trade at first then later England. Europeans had trading posts to hold slaves and usually worked with African governments and merchants. An area under the Songhai Empire was a slave trading hub. Some governments made money off of taxing slave trade. Asante Empire came into existence by taxing slave trade. Kongo resisted slave trade. Triangle trade was Atlantic slave trade route: Europe took manufactured goods to Africa who gave them slaves who were taken to America and American raw materials like sugar and tobacco were taken to Europe. Africans normally dictated terms for trade. Diaspora is forced dispersal of a group to another land. The journey was filthy and miserable and many died. Most went to Brazil and Caribbean, others North America and Europe. III. Impact of Africa A. Economics B. Political IV. Africans in the Americas A. Culture B. Resistance i. Diaspora ii. Haiti iii. Kongo iv. Angola v. Dahomey Transatlantic slave trade had economic impact in only some areas; only some people like merchants and governments that made money but in the long run, it was practically nothing Africa and it didn’t produce wealth in Africa and it didn’t produce technology for me them because the technologies they needed they already had. There was a major political effect; Europeans started African warfare in order to obtain slaves. This was a major long-term impact; they would arm rivals to make war and they even started new rivalries. There was so much more warfare due to slavery and it is very devastating. The Africans to the Americas experienced the worst conditions and were torn from families. Their impact on America was immediate and broad. The arrival in the 16 century shaped the foundations of American civilization. 3 cultural traditions: 1. Indians, 2. Europeans, 3. Africans who arrive and there three make America. They all have their own traditions that survived. For example, African slaves embraced Christianity hard and fast and they had to worship in their own slave churches and they were distinctly African in their music and service; this is uniquely American. They also brought a culture of resistance; they resisted slavery in small and large ways like routine activities and sometime there were large and violent slave insurrections. Especially where work was most laborious, there were the most frequent and violent insurrections. Haiti for example produced sugar which was as bad as it got; it is back breaking work. There is a history of insurrection here and Louisiana wanted slaves from Haiti because they already knew how to do the sugar labor but there was always a fear of stirring things up because those slaves are so rebellious; an insurrection would happen and then word would spread and it would get larger and larger. Toussaint L’Ouverture was born a slave, educated, and he became a military leader of an insurrection. Main Points: Transatlantic slave trade only really made merchants and governments rich in Africa; no new technologies or anything were invented. There was a major political effect though. Europeans started wars in Africa to obtain slaves and would arm rivals to get more slaves. The journey to America was the worst and families were torn apart. In America, many African traditions stuck and they also brought a culture of resistance. More laborious places had the worst slave uprisings and the worst was Haiti who produced sugar which was the most back breaking labor. Toussaint L’Ovuverture was born a slave and became a military leader. Review Terms for Test 3 Humanism: central cultural trend; study of Greeks and roman classics (14-15 century) evolves to celebrate human kind (dignity) Petrarch: father of humanism, first advocate to try to write like the romans did and Greeks were later. He wanted to revive classics Lorenzo Valla: the best philologist, proved the Constantine book was a fake and written centuries later Philology: historical linguistics and how languages evolve over time Vernacular literature: a literature in a spoken language (most was in Latin but other languages are sprouting up) Cosimo de Medici: the head of the Medici family, wealthy banking family in Florence which was the hub of Italian renaissance and helped the effort. Collected Plato’s work and sponsored Ficino to come and work for him. th Ficino: responsible for revival of Plato in 15 century. Believed in a cult of man because he was convinced that dignity and specialness of humans made then able to connect to the universe through the mind Pico: also believed in dignity of man and humans are special for God gave us free will to ascend as low as possible or rise to the level of angels. Polyglot Bible: effort in Spain to clean up the bible and taking it back to its original languages (poly- many, glot-languages) has the Latin next to Hebrew or Greek in the same book. Renaissance: started in Italy, revival of classics, arts, etc. Northern humanism: focused on classical Christian sources that inspired the revival aka the bible. Soon noticed serious problems in the bible like the Vulgate which is the official church bible that was in Latin translation from Greeks and Hebrews. (Spain) Erasmus: from Low Countries, single most important figure in northern renaissance. He wanted to revitalize Christianity which meant going back to the sources; they were too external and not internal spiritually. Believed in the philosophy of Christ and wanted to put him back up front and center. !!!!Luther: is inspired by part of Erasmus; he is a theological revolutionary and first protestant. Believes in justification by faith which was the cure to Luther’s crisis. Redefines sacraments and keeps 2/7, baptism and communion. Justification by faith: all one needs to be saved is faith (Luther) Transubstantiation: miracle; bread and wine is body and blood of Christ. Consubstantiation: miracle; by faith alone, the bread and wine coexist with the body and blood of Christ but isn’t the same thing. Charles V: election of Charles as Holy Roman Emperor Frederick of Saxony: voted on Charles V and Luther’s protector Ottomans: became very important and were Muslim; a great distraction to Charles so he couldn’t get aggressive with Protestantism. Anabaptist: a splinter of Protestantism; independent congregations in 1520’s, more radical protestants defined by idea of them being a community of saints. You were a member of the church not because you live near but because they freely entered and are spiritually regenerated and have reawakened and born again. After that they were baptized and a member. Zwingli: converted his state to Protestantism and communion is important but it is symbolic Calvin: creates really dynamic congregations and converted a lot of people and states. Believes in predestination. Predestination: you are chosen by god before your alive to be saved or not. Tudors: English reformation; started with Henry VIII. Didn’t want a pope and wanted to be the leader of his state. He wanted to divorce which was not allowed so he started his own catholic church. Protestant ideas did creep in so when he died and Edward VI came to power. Edward VI: too young so people ruled for him like Cromwell Thomas Cromwell: wrote the literagy for the church and was a major effort to make the church protestant. Mary Tudor: Daughter of Henry VIII who took reign after Edward, tried to restore the monarchy and Catholicism. Many became martyrs because of her efforts to make the state catholic Elizabeth I: begins Church of England or Anglican church. Half daughter of Henry. The church is catholic in look but protestant inside. Still had bishops, ceremonies, decorations, etc. Catholic Reformation: genuine catholic reform; Christian humanism was the first phase, Pope Paul III was the reform pope. Pope Paul III: called council of Trent, Pope of reform Jesuits: Monastics by Loyola specially recruited to be intellectually, emotionally and physically strong. They would be mentally and intellectually fit to be with the people and work with the people. Became the educators of Catholic Europe Council of Trent: see if there was compromise between Catholics and Protestants. Scripture v Tradition. Did many reforms to make Catholicism more meaningful to the individual like the confessional booth. Collective salvation: Catholic, not idea of the church, it’s the idea of ordinary people or popular religion. Salvation is a communal thing and even one soul could mess this up so they would try to save this person even if it’s by death. Martyrism: especially Calvinist, a reason they died for the faith is because it proves you’re a chosen one. Iconoclasm: ransacking catholic churches and destroying religious imagery Guise: Catholics in France (family) Bourbons: Protestants in France (family) Catherine de Medici: mother of 3 French kings in succession and tried to dominate their reigns and made things worse. Policy of moderation: by Catherine, thought that if you put people in a room and they will hash out their differences so she would negotiate treaties to give Protestants toleration. This had effect of inflaming the Catholics by empowering the Protestants. This failed. Saint Bartholomew Massacre: after a failed treaty of Catherine, she got cold feet after marrying her daughter to protestant Henry of Navarre (House of Bourbon). She decided this was a mistake so she orders the slaughter of Protestants in Paris. Henry becomes heir to the throne anyways (irony). Henry of Navarre: does the edict of Nantes. Edict of Nantes: granted toleration, not freedom. Not meant to be permanent. Vivaldi Brothers: great achievement was idea of going west around Africa to reach spice trade and this idea went to Columbus De Gama: went around Africa Magellan: first to go around the world and is given credit Cook: explored the pacific and Australia Treaty of Tordesillas: granted by pope, drew a line in new world and said this goes to Portugal, rest to Spain Encomienda’s: process of ensurfing Indians by Spaniards in Americas. Gave them x number of Indians as servants. Castas: Latin America, idea/groups of mixed ancestry Mestizos: Indian and European Mulattos: European and Africa Creoles: people of euro ancestry but born in Americas. Part of euro elite in Americas Peninsulares: from Europe, looked down on Creoles because they weren’t educated in Europe and they threatened Creole’s rank of elite in America. Bourbon reforms: make more efficient government and economy in Americas. Disrupts old patterns of power by creoles who respond negatively and inspired independence Absolutism: in France, happened over 3 reigns, Henry IV, Louis XIV. (2 most important) Sully: Henry’s right hand man. Stabilized France by ending the wars, balancing the budget and try to reform tax collection to be systematic and uniform through realm. Louis XIV: initially a disaster because he’s 9 and Marie de Medici ruined things. The only absolutist truly. Richelieu: Louis’s right hand man, try to disarm protestant s and did this at aka Rochelle (capitol of Protestants) Intendent: bureaucrat spies Palace of Versailles: to control nobility, reforms the army (Louis), revokes edict of Nantes Limited monarchy: in England, not much control; shared control. Stuarts: undeliberately created the limited monarchy. James I: Rules Scotland and rules in England. He created horrible public relations and believed in divine right. He hated calling on parliament but has to because of money issues. Charles I: After his father, James, comes to rule and hates Parliament and puritans more than his father. Doesn’t call parliament for 11 years which is the 11 year tyranny until he needs money. Parliament keeps in session for 13 years and does many reforms. Puritans: Extreme Calvinists William Laud: Arch bishop of Canterbury and Charles advisor. Long Parliament: 13 year session resulting in reforms. Oliver Cromwell: Puritan and Member of Parliament, takes over throne and becomes a military dictator basically. Charles II: lived in exile but became king again under whatever parliament says but wanted to re-catholicize England and this made things chaotic. James II: King of England and Scotland; overthrown by parliament Glorious revolution: Overthrow of James II Ghana: first of the African empires (smallest) Mail’: second of the major African empire (these are in north west Africa around Timbuktu) Songhai: last and largest of the three Mansa Musa: richest person in history, emperor of Mali Empire, pilgrimage to Mecca Ibn Battuta: a famous traveler; wrote of his journeys through Africa Insider vs outsider: What qualified who would be enslaved like Europe didn’t enslave Europeans because they were insiders but did enslave Africans because they were outsiders. Africa’s insiders were narrower and were within kingdoms and tribes so they enslaved enemy tribe members, etc. Triangular trade: Europe took manufactured goods to Africa which gave them slaves to take to America to work and then those raw materials would go back to Europe. Diaspora: forced movement of people from their land Toussaint L’Overture: Born a slave, was educated and became a military leader for slaves.