Week 7 Notes
Week 7 Notes Anth 165
Popular in Anthropology 165
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Skylar Evans on Wednesday November 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 165 at University of Oregon taught by Angela Montague in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Anthropology 165 in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Oregon.
Reviews for Week 7 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 11/11/15
M Table of Contents Page 15 Vocab words and topics de ned analyzed and explained from Lecture 8 Cultural Regulation of Sexuality Marriage diversity Page 56 Required Film The Loving Story Includes a full lm synopsis naming all characters events and dates of the documentary Page 68 Readings Important points from the readings CS pg 149 Arranging a marriage in India by Serena Nanda The Visit by Clifford Geertz Canvas A right to marry by Martha Nussbaum Canvas Marriage Is marriage universal Something that approximates marriage is found in all societies Romantic love is NOT universal basis for marriage Other considerations political economic cultural There is no single definition of marriage Marriage is a virtually universal human institution Marriage exists in virtually every known human society The shape of marriage varies considerably in different cultural contexts but at least since the beginning of recorded history in all the ourishing varieties of human cultures documented by anthropologists marriage has been a universal human institution As a virtually universal human idea marriage involves regulation the reproduction of children families and society Marriage Defined Anthropologically Edward Westermarck 1921 defined marriage as a more or less durable connection between male and female lasting beyond the mere act of propagation till after the birth of the offspring This was revised in 1936 to a relation of one or more men to one or more women that is recognized by custom or law Edward Alexander Westermarck 1862193 9 sociologist and anthropologist he was both a speculative armchair anthropologist and a eld worker was born in Helsingborg Finland He received his PHD From the University of Helsingborg in 1890 honorary LLD S from the University of Aberdeen in 1912 and the University of Glasgow in 1929 and an honorary PHD from the University of Uppsala in 1932 He lectured on sociology at the University of London from 1904 to 1907 and professor of sociology there during each Easter term from 1907 to 1930 In 1890 he was appointed lecturer on sociology at the University of Helsingborg and from 1906 to 1918 he was professor of moral philosophy there He was the rst head of the Abo Academy from 1918 to 1921 and professor of philosophy there from 1918 to 1930 Among his prominent pupils in London were Bronislaw Malinowski Morris Ginsberg and G C Wheeler and in Finland Rafael Karsten and Gunnar Landsman For Westermarck the object of sociology is to explain the social phenomena to nd their causes to show how and why they have come into existence 1908 pp 24 25 He wrote many books on a variety of subjects but was principally interested in marriage ethics and religion Westermarck s rst book The History of Human Marriage 1891 which had a foreword by Alfred Russell Wallace was an enormous success and was translated into French German Swedish Italian Japanese and Spanish In 1921 the fth edition was published completely rewritten and enlarged to three volumes To gather material for this book Westermarck supplemented his research at the British Museum by sending questionnaires to about 125 persons living among primitive peoples in different parts of the world About one fth of those questioned mostly English missionaries replied The diversity of the material he collected convinced him that it was possible to study all of mankind only by the comparative method In his book Westermarck criticized the then current theories of primitive promiscuity and ancient groupmarriage He rejected the hypothesis that primitive man lived in promiscuity and believed instead that monogamy was the original form of marriage According to Westermarck the nuclear family as pre gured among the anthropoid apes was the rst and universal unit from which society developed Marriage is rooted in the family rather than the family in marriage The family is necessary for the survival of certain species because of the need for parental protection The male stays with the female and the young to take care of them and this is the result of instincts acquired through the process of natural selection In 1926 Westermarck published A Short History of Marriage which contained the theories he had arrived at in his massive study without the factual material His hypothesis of incest is connected with his psychological explanation of the rules for exogamy He traced the origin of exogamy to the lack of inclination for sexual intercourse between relatives usually consanguineous relatives who live very close together 1926a p 80 In such cases the very thought of the act leads to positive aversion and this aversion displays itself in custom and law as a prohibition of intercourse between near kin Westermarck s Three Essays on Sex and Marriage 1934a may be considered a supplement to The History of Human Marriage The rst essay is a criticism of Freud s theory of the Oedipus complex and of infantile incestuous desire the second contains theories of exogamy and the third is a polemic against Robert Briffault who had attacked Westermarck in his book The Mothers 1927 Westermarck s second monumental book The Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas 19061908 has been considered his most important work Convinced that moral judgments are ultimately based not on intellect but on emotions he denied the objective validity of moral judgments According to Westermarck ethics is a psychological and sociological discipline not a normative science General moral truths do not exist The object of scienti c ethics is not to x rules for human conduct but to investigate the phenomenon of moral consciousness As in his work on marriage Westermarck used the comparative method in his book on ethics In collecting his material he started from the assumption that the moral ideas of people are most clearly expressed in their customs and laws Another book Ethical Relativity 1932a stated his views on ethical subjectivism more explicitly In his Early Beliefs and Their Social In uence 1932b Westermarck discussed the in uences that early religious and magical beliefs and practices have exerted upon social relationships and institutions He asserted that blessings curses holiness and ritual uncleanness belong to magic as well as to religion A religion may include many practices of magical origin In the ancient East magic and religion were indissolubly mixed Some of the impetus for Westermarck s Early Belie s and Their Social In uence came from his eldwork in Morocco In the course of more than thirty years he spent a total of nine years in Morocco studying the religious and magical ideas and rites of a single people Four books and a posthumous article resulted from this eldwork They include studies of marriage customs 1914 popular religion and magic 1926 pagan survivals 1933 and homicide 1947 as well as a collection of two thousand Moorish proverbs recorded as they were actually used in concrete situations 1930 The anthropological handbook Notes and Queries de ned marriage as a union between a man and a woman such that children born to the woman are the recognized legitimate offspring of both partners In recognition of a practice by the Nuer of Sudan allowing women to act as a husband in certain circumstances Kathleen Gough suggested modifying this to a woman and one or more other persons So what is the point of all these de nitions Marriage is different is every culture There is no one definition that can define marriage without covering diversity Woman to woman marriage Documented in 30 African cultures Ex Nuer of the Sudan Igbo of Nigeria Female husband may be barren widowed or independently wealthy All ceremonial aspects of traditional marriages are observed and all rules of divorce in the society apply Not necessarily sexual wife may bear children for female husband The Nayar Cast Central India Kerala Tali ceremony to all boys of the appropriate caste Matrilineal of or based on kinship with the mother or the female line and Matrilocal In social anthropology matrilocal residence or matrilocality also uxorilocal residence or uxorilocality is a term referring to the societal system in which a married couple resides with or near the wife39s parents Property groups groups of brothers and sister together with the sisters children Oldest man legal head of group Prior to British governance on 1792 they did not have nuclear families with a husband present Exchange of Goods in Marriage Bride Service the husband must work for specified period of time for his wife s family in exchange for his martial rights Bride wealth cash or goods are given by the groom s kin to the bride s kin to seal a marriage Dowry a presentation 0 goods by the bride s kin to the groom s family Marriage Rules Crossculturally Every society has culturally defined rules concerning sexual relations and marriage Marriage rules may determine how many people one can marry allow for ending marriages and dictate the rituals that legitimate marriage Endogamy the custom of marrying only within the limits of a local community clan or tribe Exogamy the custom of marrying outside a community clan or tribe I e Incest T aboo An incest taboo is any cultural rule or norm that prohibits sexual relations between closely related persons All human cultures have norms that exclude certain close relatives from those considered suitable or permissible sexual or marriage partners making such relationships taboo However different norms exist among cultures as to which blood relations are permissible as sexual partners and which are not The sexual relations between related people which are subject to the taboo are called incestuous relationships Hypergamy the action of marrying a person of a superior caste or class Taboo Instinctive horror Homo sapiens are genetically programmed to avoid incest Biological degeneration the incest taboo developed in response to abnormal offspring born from incestuous unions Neither instinctive horror nor biological degeneration can explain the very widespread custom of marrying cross cousins Attempt direct sexual feelings away from one s family to avoid disrupting the family structure and relations Contempt people are less likely to be sexually attracted to those with whom they have grown up with A more accepted argument in that the taboo originated to ensure exogamy This argument focuses on the adaptive social results of exogamy such an alliance formation not simply on the idea of biological degeneration Incest taboos also function to increase a group s genetic diversity Types of Marriage Unions Monogamy allows someone to have only one spouse at a time Polygamy allows for an individual to have more than one spouse Polygyny allows men to have more than one wife at one time Polyandry allows a woman to have more than one husband at a time Marriage in the United States A legal union between two consenting adults who are old enough and mentally capable to make such a decision that is effective until death or legal termination The Loving story film summary A racially charged criminal trial and a heartrending love story converge in this documentary about Richard and Mildred Loving set during the turbulent Civil Rights era Long Way Home The Loving Story is a story of love and the struggle for dignity set against a backdrop of historic antimiscegenation sentiments in the US The Lovings an interracial couple fell in love and married at a critical time in American history and because of a con uence of social and political turmoil our reluctant heroes bring about change where previously no one else could They are paired with two young and ambitious lawyers who are driven to pave the way for Civil Rights and social justice through an historic Supreme Court ruling changing the country39s story forever On June 2 1958 a white man named Richard loving and his partblack part Cherokee f1ance e Mildred J eter travelled from Caroline County Virginia to Washington DC to be married At the timer interracial marriage was illegal in 21 states including Virginia Back home two weeks later the newlyweds were arrested tried and convicted of felony crime of miscegenation To avoid a one year jail sentence the Lovings agreed to leave the states they could return to Virginia but only separately Living in exile in DC with their children the Lovings missed their families and dearly wanted to return to their rural home At the advice of her cousin Mildred wrote a letter to Attorney General Robert F Kennedy who wrote her back suggesting she get in touch with the American Civil Liberties Union Two young ACLU lawyers Bernard S Cohen and Philip J Hirschkop took on the Lovings case fully aware of the challenges posed at a time when many Americans were vehement about segregation and maintaining the purity of the races In interviews lmed at the time the two lawyers dissect the absurdities of the laws and the dif culties of trying a case over ve years old Today Hirschkop recalls that Mildred was quiet and articulate while joking that his initial impression of Richard was that he looked like a crewcut redneck As they came to know them however it became apparent that the couple was deeply committed to each other With an eye towards taking their case to the highest possible court Chen led a motion to vacate the judgment on the Lovings original conviction and set side the sentence Local judge Leon Bazile denied the motion stating that God had separated people by continents and did not intend for the races to miv After the Virginia Supreme Court responded with similarly antiquated and racist sentiments Cohen and Hirschkop seized the opportunity to take the case to the US Supreme Court Although the odds of getting a case heard by the court were slim Cohen and Hirschkop learned that Loving v Virginia would be heard on April 10 1967 Aware that their case had the potential to set a landmark precedent the two green lawyers prepped in New York before heading to the famous Supreme Court building in DC In oral arguments heard on audiotape the state compared anti miscegenation statues to the right to prohibit incest polygamy and underage marriage claiming that children are victims in an interracial marriage The plaintiffs lawyers by contrast included legal arguments interspersed with references to sociology and anthropology And though the Lovings chose not to attend Cohen may have the most compelling case by relaying to the Chief Justice Warren and his fellow judges Richards s simple message Tell the court that I love my wife and it is unfair that I can t live with her in Virginia After a twomonth wait the US Supreme court ruled unanimously in favor of the Lovings on June 12 1967 This precedent setting decision resulted in 16 states beings ordered to overturn their bans on interracial marriage Alabama was the last holdout nally repealing its antimiscegenation law in 2000 Readings Project Muse The Right to Marry Marriage is both abiquitous and central Marriage is plural in both content and meaning There is no one de nition Marriage has a civil rights aspect Married people get a lot of government bene ts such as favorable treatment in taX inheritance insurance status immigration rights rights in adoption and custody decisional and visitation rights in health care and burial Marriage has an expressive aspect When people get married they typically make a statement of love and commitment in front of witnesses Marriage has a religious aspect For some people marriage is not complete without being solemnized by the relevant authorities in their religion Government plays an important role in marriage Samesex marriage debate The point of the ght is so same sex couples ought to enjoy equal civil rights The public debate about same sex marriage is primarily about the expressive aspects of marriage It is here that the difference between civil unions and marriage resides and it is the is aspect that is the issue when same sex couples see the compromise offer of civil unions as stigmatizing and degrading The golden age and how marriage was more perfect then The rise of divorce in the modern era more over was spurred not by hatred of marriage but far more by a high conception of what marriage ought to be The rise is divorce in recent years is probably connected to women s social and political empowerment more than to any other factor This would be a really interesting topic to discuss in a post and see what other students opinion is Does the right to marry obligate a state to offer a set of economic and civil benefits to married people Does it obligate a state to confer dignity and status on certain unions by the use of the term marriage And does it require the state to recognize or validate unions approved by religious bodies The Visit Among the Na a tribal group located in the Yougning hills of Yunan province in southern China mothers exist as do children but there are no dads Sexual intercourse takes place between casual opportunistic lovers who develop no broader more enduring relations to one another There are two major variants in the Na decent theory and alliance theory The universality of the incest taboo necessitates marriage and the creation of the transversal networks of alliances that engender all social organization Marriage affinity alliance of marriage and family essential to anthropology seem absent from this culture The Na case attests to the fact that marriage and the family can no longer be considered universal neither logically or historically CS Arranging a marriage in India In India all marriages are arranged So customary is the practice of arranged marriage that there is a special name for a marriage which is not arranged it is called a love match There is a high intensity of competition The family s reputation is most important Matches are arranged only within the same caste and general social class Instead of looks girl s character and her ability to get along with the groom s family are the most important aspects in an arranged marriage While dowry is illegal the giVing of gifts is an important ceremony and tradition among the families