Psych 105 Week 2 notes
Psych 105 Week 2 notes Psych 105- Intro to Psycholgy
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Psych 105- Intro to Psycholgy
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by JustAnotherStudent on Sunday January 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 105- Intro to Psycholgy at Washington State University taught by Staff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 135 views. For similar materials see PSYCH 105 in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 01/25/15
Psych 105 Week 2 200115 amp 220115 STeps To The scienTific meThod 1 FormulaTe a TesTable hypoThesis a Took Two research auesTions and paired Them down To TesTable hypoThesis lasT class i specific informed and TesTable predicTion abouT The ouTcome in a research design 1 A TenTaTive sTaTemenT abouT The relaTionship beTween Two or more variables ii A facTor ThaT can varychange in ways ThaT can be observedmeasured 1 Things ThaT you re manipulaTingobserving n your research iii HypoThesis predicT change in variables 2 Design The sTudy and coecT The daTa a MusT decide whaT Type of design you ll use i observingdescribing behaviour ii deliberaTely manipulaTing one facTor To show ThaT one variable affecTs anoTher iii COLLECT if we do someThing and noT coecT daTa if is noT an experimenT buT an inTervenTion 3 Analyse The daTa and draw conclusions a 95 accuracy is whaT we are looking for in social science 1 maThemaTics used by researchers To organize summarize inTerpreT daTa maThemaTical indicaTion ThaT resulTs did noT lilltely occur by chance 1 If if is if supporTs The hypoThesisl iii pooling The resulTs from mulTiple sTudies info a single analysis 4 ReporT The findings a Even if you fail Terribly This way oTher don T have To go Through The same problems you did b Publish reporT MusT describe sTudies accuraTely repeaT The sTudy To increase confidence in findings 90 Buildina Theories tentative explanation that tries to integrate various findingobservations into one explanations Theories are not absolute Have not been wrong so far a They change with sciencenew evidence o Create a current coherent picture Theories can all be challenged Research Strategies strategies for observing and describing Naturalistic observation 0 Case studies Surveys Correlational methods strategies for inferring cause and effect relationships among variables Correlation and causation are not the same Interview and survey 0 Involves asking people questions about what they think or feel or how they behave Questions are asked the same exact way to each respondent 0 Additional limitations o Ivlay not have a representative sample Correlational Studies a studies that measure two or more variables and their relationship to one another a Correltiion not the slime as causationllllll a statistic ranging from i to i that assesses the strength and direction of an association of two variable o one goes up the other goes up As one increases the other increases As one decreases the other decreases o one goes up the other goes down As one variable goes up the other goes down As of ciggs goes up health goes down Causality mistaltes o The more firemen fighting a fire the bigger the fire is observed to be Therefore firemen cause fire o incorreclly sldling lhdl on effecl occurs before ils couse 0 As ice credm soles incredse lhe role of drowning dedlhs incredses shdrply Therefore ice credm couses drowning 0 Third variable inlerfdce off 0 lhird voridble Experimenldl sludies d resedrch design lhdl includes independenl dnd dependdnl voridbles 0 One voridble is monipuldled while dnolher is medsured wilh effecls indicolive of cousolions o Pdrlicipdnl ore rdndomly ossigned lo conlrol lhe experimenldl groups Benefils 0 Con infer couse Limildlions o Resulls come from 0 highly conlrolled usudlly unndlurol selling dnd ore lherefore less generdlizoble or properly lhdl is monipuldled by lhe experimenler under conlrolled condilioned lo delermine whelher il couses lhe predicled oulcome lhe oulcome or response lo lhe experimenldl monipuldlion Try lo llteep lhem sepdrdle o d voridble whose influence on lhe DV connol be sepdrdled from lhe lV lhings lhdl mess up your sludy for you wilhoul you hdving lo do onylhingex when lhere ore concer sludies lhdl you hove lo hove 0 very specific concer of d cerldin sldge polienls doclors fdmilies elc Lie dboul where lhey ore so lhey con gel polenlidl lredlmenl o melhod used lo ossign lhe pdrlicipdnls lo differenl resedrch condilions so lhdl dll pdrlicipdnls hove lhe some chdnce of being in dny group 0 Limils lhe impdcl of confounding voridbles o A group of pdrlicipdnls who receive 0 lhe lredlmenl or wholever is predicled lo chdnge behdviour o 0 group of pdrlicipdnls who ore lredled lhe exocl some ds lhose in lhe experimenldl group bul ore nol subjecl lo lredlmenl of lhe independenl voridble o Mdy receive pldcebo Any lltnowledge lhdl pdrlicipdnls 0nd or experimenlers hove dboul lhe experimenldl condilions lo which lhe pdrlicipdnls hove been ossigned con offecl lhe oulcome lo lhe experimenl sludies in wish pdrlicipdnls do nol ltnow lhere group ossignmenl sludies in which bolh lhe pdrlicipdnls dnd lhe experimenlers do nol ltnow lhe pdrlicipdnls group ossignmenls Psvcholodv ond EThics Reseorch o Helsinki occords following world wor 2 o BelmonT ReporT o Humon subjecTs guidelines 0 NoT lows guidelines 0 IRB InTernoI Review Boord o Composed of knowledge peers ocross deporTmenTs ond communiTy members To review reseorch proposols ocTive reseorch ond The resuTs of reseorch WSU s IRB link ovoiloble online To oll sTudenTs APAAmericon Psychologicol AssocioTion o IncorporoTed in 1925 o CreoTed o commiTTee To deol privoTer wiTh comploinTs of uneThicoI conducT in 1938 o FirsT version of The APA EThics Code wos published in 1953 0 Revised mony Times 9 ond counTing since Then Reseorch wiTh Humons l Informed ConsenT o WhoT The sTudy is obouT b WhoT porTiciponTs will do c How long iT will Tollte d Risks ond benefiTs e Who To conTocT wiTh quesTions f WiThdrowol is possible oT ony Time g Requires signoTure of oduITs ond ego guordions for minors 2 RespecT for persons 0 STudy musT sofeguord The digniTy ond ouTonomy of porTiciponTs b ExTro couTions musT be Tolten for speciol populoTions i Eg children ond prisoners 3 Beneficence o CosTs for porTiciponTs musT be minimised ond benefiTs moximized b DecepTion should be ovoided whenever possible c Welfore of The reseorch porTiciponT is The gool d STudy musT olso conTribuTe To beTTering socieTy 4 Privacy and confidenTialiTV 0 Response ore ltepT confidenTioI b PorTiciponTs idenTiTies ore noT linlted To Their response 5 JusTice o BenefiTs ond cosT musT be disTribuTed equolly omong porTiciponTs Reseorch wiTh onimols 0 Highly conTroversiol o Animols connoT dive consenT The Tuslltedee Syphilis Proiecl st originally supposed lo losl l yedr bul lhey liked lhe ddld so lhey lltepl il going No one lived longer lhdn 3 yedrs ln lhe 1940 s lhey discovered lhdl penicillin wos d gredl cure for syphilis 0 There were lhose wilh were slill in lhe experimenl This wos ended in lhe 1970 s when exposed ln lhe 1990 s Clinlon publicolly opologized for lhe sludy Toddy lhe governmenl is slill pdying for lhe medicol core of lhe fdmily of lhose pdrlicipdnls due lo lhe spredd of lhe disedse Sldnford Prison Experimenl i970 s Sludy held in psychology bdsemenls of Sldnford universily How people respond lo 0 cruel environmenl when lhere is no rules Rondomly chosen who wos guords dnd who wos prisoners 0 They chose lhe mosl normdl form lhe psychologicol exom lolten in lhe beginning The prisoners where mock drresled booked blind folded slripped ndlted pul in d smock dnd onlltle chdined Only colled by s No body slopped lhe guords from whdl lhey chose lo do 0 Guords sldrled lo dclu0y see lhe prisoners ds dongerous individuols Guords begdn lo humilidle lhe prisoners wilh slrdnger dnd slrdnger losllts o If lhe ldbles would hove been lurned lhen lhe guords would hove been lhe prisoners dnd vice d verso So lhe guords ltnew lhdl lhe prisoners redlly didn l do onylhing bul lhe power role wos loo much This losled 6 ddys o The only redson il slopped wos becouse DrZimbdrdo wos doling d psychology grdd sludenl Mildrdm Obedience Experimenl Experimenl on humdn behdyiour 0 Blind obedience lo dulhorily Shock obedience experimenl 0 Row of bullon lhdl one person would inflicl on dnolher shock volldge o st origindlly lhoughl lhdl lhere wos some hordwire issues wilh lhe Germdn people However lhe experimenl never mode il lo Germdnyil didn l hove lo There wos only one redl pdrlicipdnl The viclim ltnew dboul lhe experimenl dnd wos cooched lo onswer wrongly dnd oppose lhe shoclt dl cerldin volldges The only dulhorily figure wos in 0 while lob cool 0 The resedrch ossisldnl in lhe lob cool would lell lhe dcludl pdrlicipdnl lhdl il is essenlidl lo conlinue dnd lhdl lhough lhe shoclt hurl il wos nol dongerousregdrdless of lhe poin from lhe olher person Keep in mind lhdl mdny of lhe pdrlicipdnls lefl ds soon ds lhey sow lhe shoclt mochine dnd sel up Harlow Monkey Experiment Monkey orphan separated from mother at birth The monkey only had a soft cloth mother that got cleaned once a day Studied love because he thought it made an important impact on life Monkey got to choose between wired mother that feds it and a cloth mother that provides comfort and warmth 0 Monkey chose wire at first but then chose cloth and stayed for 18hrs They scared the baby monkey to see what it would choose The baby monkey chose the cloth mother When monkey has been raised alone when scared the baby sti stayed aone instead of going to the cloth Important things to know form chapter 1 Major experiments perspectives and schools people Research concepts and definitions 0 Know your independent and dependent variables theory is different than hypothesis sample vs population different experiments from text book Chapter 2 The Nervous System Biological psychology many types behavioural neuroscience neuropsychologists behaviour genetics neuro psychologist The Neuron The Synapse ml 1 Cell body soma nucleus with chromosomes Dendrites receive info from the other cells Axon transmits info to other neurons muscles and glands Myelin sheath insulator made of oigodendrocytes a gia cell Nodes of Romfer Structure of a Typical Neuron Dendrite Axon terminal 1quot t V 3V xxs g yg Cell body l 1 V Iquot lt lt 39 fN Node of Rang 4K t Schwann cell Myelin sheath Junction between one neuron s axon and another s dendritescell body it Neurotransmitters cross the synapse Plays a fundamental role in the communication between neurons Nucleus Types of Neurons Sensory Interneurons Motor Action Potential Electrical charge gathered by dendrites and cell body ElecTrical charge Travels down The axon To synapse STimulaTes The release of neuroTransmiTTers inTo synapse Occurs only when elecTrical signal is aT a cerTain level Threshold 0 All or none elecTrical implse is The same no maTTer how much sTimulaTion The neuron receives 0 Neuron reTurns To resTing sTaTe afTer elecTrical charge is TransmiTTed ElecTrical CommunicaTion 4 sTages Peak action potential 30 T ResTing poTenTial 2 DepolarizaTion 3 AcTion poTenTial 4 RepolarizaTion Repolariza lion Threshold of excita lion Hy p erpolarizaliorl Membrane potential HIV Reeling potential Time The refecTory period 0 The Time following an acTion poTenTial AnoTher acTion poTenTial canT occur during The refecTory period AfTer The acTion poTenTial
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