Week 2 Notes - Sociology 101
Week 2 Notes - Sociology 101 SOC101
Popular in Sociology 101-001 Intro To Sociology
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kennedy Patterson on Sunday January 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Lesley Williams Reid in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 2008 views. For similar materials see Sociology 101-001 Intro To Sociology in Sociology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/25/15
Sociology 12015 12215 Week 2 Basics of Sociological Investigations Chapter 21 1 sociological research methods are systematic processes used to explain empirical phenomena a having a strategic plan of action b both observable and measurable 2 comprised of variables case oriented or variable oriented Two types i Type you use is determined by theory and design ii Type of data you collect determines how you analyze it and the conclusions you can draw 0 e 3 a Schwartz Christine R and Hongyun Han 2014 The Reversal of the Gender Gap in Education and Trends in Marital Dissolutionquot American Sociological Review 79 605629 i Independent Variable wives education ii Dependent Variable divorce 4 a CaseOriented Research i Idiographic Explanation ii Inductive Theory iii Qualitative Data b VariableOriented Research i Nomothetic Explanation ii Deductive Theory iii Quantitative Data 5 a Quantitative Methods i Experiments ii Survey Research 1 SelfAdministered 2 Interviews iii Secondary Data 1 Official Statistics 2 Content Analysis a Documents 00 0 Sociology 12015 12215 Week 2 b Artifacts b Qualitative Methods i InDepth Interviews ii Observation 1 Participant 2 NonParticipant iii Case Studies iv Secondary Data 1 Content Analysis a Documents b Artifacts 6 a Voluntary Participation b Minimization of Risk c Protect Confidential Information d Honesty 7 a Like the sociological perspective scientific evidence sometimes challenges our common sense b Poor people are far more likely than rich people to break the lawquot False i Poor people do stant out in the official arrest statistics but research shows that police and prosecutors are more likely to treat welltdo people more leniently celebrity shop lifting or drunk driving ii Some laws are written in a way that criminalizes poor people more The United States is a middleclass society in which most people are more or less equalquot False i Data presented shows that the richest 5 of US families control 63 of the nation s total wealth but almost half of all families have scarcely any wealth at all Most poor people don t want to workquot False i May be true of some people but not most poor people ii Nearly half of poor people in the US are children and elderly people who aren t expected to work e Differences in the behavior of females and males are just human nature quot False i Some societies define feminine and masculine very differently from the way we do People change as they grow old losing many interests as they focus on their healthquot False i Aging does very little to change our personalities n 0 Th Sociology 12015 12215 Week 2 ii Problems of health increase in old age but elderly people keep the distinctive personalities they have had throughout their adult lives g Most people marry because they are in lovequot False i In many societies marriage has little to do with love 8 logical system that bases knowledge on direct systematic observation 9 apply the sociological perspective and be curious and ask questions 10 Textbook presents an example of a story about planting seeds and placing a fish on top of the soil This story expresses the type of truth that is based on 11 The sociologist Lois Benjamin interviewed many successful African Americans and concluded from her research that black people still suffer from racism in the US Today How did she know racism still exists a Because Benjamin s subjects said that they perceived racism and its effects in their lives Three Ways to do Sociology Chapter 23 1 the study of society based on systematic observation of social behavior a The job of the scientist is to discover this reality by gathering empirical evidence facts we can verify with our sense by seeing hearing or touching 2 a mental construct that represents some part of the world in a simplified form i Sociologists use concepts to label aspects of social life including the familyquot and the economyquot and to categorize people in terms of their gender or social classquot b concept whose value changes from case to case i Family vairbale price has a value that changes from item to item in a supermarket ii Use the concept social classquot to describe people s social standing as upper classquot middle classquot working classquot or lower classquot c procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case i Some variables are easy to measure Sociology 12015 12215 Week 2 ii Measuring sociological variables can be very difficult how could you measure a person s social class 1 Look at the clothing people wear listening to how they speak or noting where they live income occupation and education 3 specifying exactly what is to be measured before assigning a value to a variable a Reliability and Validity i consistency in measurement 1 A measurement is reliable if repeated measurements give the same result every time ii actually measuring exactly what you intend to measure 4 relationship in which change in one variable causes change in another a variable that causes the change b variable that changes 5 relationship in which two or more variables change together 6 apparent but false relationship between two or more variables that is caused by some other variable 7 holding constant all variables except one in order to see clearly the effect of that variable 8 personal neutrality in conducting research a Researchers carefully hold to scientific procedures and do not let their own attitudes and beliefs influence the results 9 repetition of research by other investigators a If other researchers repeat a study using the same procedures and obtain the same results we gain confidence that the results are accurate both reliable and valid 10 the study of society that focuses on the meanings people attach to their social world a Society is ongoing interaction people construct reality as they attach meanings to their behavior b Seeking to look deeper than outward behavior the researcher focuses on subjective meaning The researcher gathers qualitative data discovering the subjective sense people make of their world Researcher is a participant c SymbolicInteraction approach d pioneer of this framework argued that the proper focus of sociology is interpretation or understanding the meaning that people create in their everyday lives Sociology 12015 12215 Week 2 11 the key to interpretive sociology lay Verstehen German word for understanding a Thoughts and feelings of subject scientists tend to dismiss because they are too difficult to measure focus of interpretive sociologist s attention 12 the study of society that focuses on the need for social change a Society is patterns of inequality Reality is that some categories of people dominate others b Seeking to go beyond positivism s focus on studying the world as it is the researcher is guided by politics and uses research as a strategy to bring about desired social change Researcher is an activist c SocialConflict approach 13 the study of society based on systematic observation of social behavior a Society is an orderly system there is an objective reality out there b Using a scientific orientation the researcher carefully observes behavior gathering empirical ideally quantitative data researcher tries to be a neutral observer c Structuralfunctional approach 14 The doing of sociology as conducting research to learn about the social world Gender and Research Chapter 23 1 personality traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male 2 a focus on the male approaching an issue from a male perspective i Example a sociologist creates a survey to measure average work hours but does not include housewife as an occupational choice ii Male is to female as Androcentricity is to gynocentricity b researchers use data drawn fro people of only one sex to support conclusions about humanity or society i Gathering information by talking to only male students then drawing conclusions about an entire campus c failing to consider gender at all Sociology 12015 12215 Week 2 i Study of growing old in the SU might suffer from gender blindness if it overlooked the fact that most elderly men live with their wives but elderly women typically live alone d researchers must be careful not to distort what they study by judging men and women differently i A family researcher who labels a couple as man and wifequot may define the man as the head of the householdquot and treat him as important paying little attention to a woman e gender can distort a study is if a subject reacts to the sex of the researcher interfering with the research operation i Maureen Giovannini found that many men treated her as a woman rather than a researcher some thought it was wrong for an unmarried woman to speak privately with a man others denied Giovannini access to places they considered offlimits to women Research Ethics Chapter 24 1 a Be careful with terms the term Hispanic is a label of convenience used by the US Census Bureau few people of Spanish decent think of themselves as Hispanic most identify with a particular country b Be aware of cultural differences many Hispanics place more value on cooperation and community c Anticipate family dynamics Hispanic cultures have strong family loyalties asking subjects to reveal information about another family member may make them uncomfortable or even angry d Take your time Spanish cultures tend to place the quality of relationships above simply getting a job done a nonHispanic researcher who tries to hurry an interview with a Hispanic family out of desire not to delay the family s dinner may be considered rude for not proceeding at a more sociable and relaxed pace e Think about personal space Hispanics typically maintain closer physical contact than many nonHispanics 2 Of special importance to sociologists is the fact that havehas established formal guidelines for conducting research Research Methods Chapter 25 1 systematic plan for doing research Sociology 12015 12215 Week 2 a Four commonly used methods are experiments surveys participant observation and the use of existing data 2 research method for investigation cause and effect under highly controlled conditions 3 statement of a possible relationship between two or more variables 4 a State which variable is the independent and dependent variable b Measure the initial value of the dependent variable c Measure the dependent variable again to see what change took place 5 refer to a change in a subject s behavior caused simply bu the awareness of being studied a Researchers need to be aware that subjects behavior may change simply because they are getting special attention as one classic experiment revealed 6 research method in which subjects respond to a series of statements or questions on a questionnaire or in an interview the people who are the focus of research part of a population that represents the whole series of written questions a researcher presents to subjects 0 series of questions a researcher asks respondents in person 11 research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in their routine activities 12 E Digby Baltzell studied the effects of puritanism and Quakerism in shaping the different cultures of two US cities 13 One of the limitations of using participant observation in a research study is that replication of research is difficult KOCII L Culture Chapter 3 1 the ways of thinking the ways of acting and the material objects that together form a people s way of life 2 Is shared Islearned Is taken for granted Is symbolic both material and nonmaterial And varies 3 ideas created by members of a society papam Sociology 12015 12215 Week 2 a The beliefs held by members of the Catholic faith the philosophy of Confucianism and the requirements for graduation form college are all examples of Nonmaterial culture 4 the physical things created by members of a society 5 personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life 6 In the animal kingdom only humans rely on CULTURE to ensure their survival 7 One result of hightechnology communication increasing international migration and an expanding global economy has been a decrease in the diversity of languages spoken around the world 8 Which set of adjectives could best be used to describe the sociological concept of culture a Learned shared intergenerational 9 a specific ideas that people hold to be true b culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable good and beautiful and that serve as broad guidelines for social living c rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members 10 Key Values of US Culture a our society should provide everyone with a chance to get ahead according to individual talents and efforts b our way of life encourages competition so that each person s rewards should reflect personal merit c success in the US generally means making money and enjoying what it will buy d our culture values action over reflection and taking control over events over passively accepting fate e value the practical over the theoretical what will get us somewherequot over what is interesting for its own sakequot f the present is better than the past g expect scientists to solve problems and improve the quality of ourHves h individuals have rights that governments should not take away a just political system is based on free elections in which citizens elect government leaders and on an economy that responds to the choices of individual consumers i we favor individual initiative over collective conformity Sociology 12015 12215 Week 2 j most people in the US still judge individuals according to gender race ethnicity and social class 11 Mores norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance 12 Folkways norms for routine or casual interaction 13 Mores differs from folkways in that mores have great moral significance whereas folkways are less important norms that apply to routine or casual interaction 14 Social control attempts by society to regulate people s thoughts and behavior 15 a In response to innovations or inventions b In response to discovery or understanding c And through cultural diffusion 16 a system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another a process by which one generation passes culture to the next b idea that people see and understand the world through the cultural lens of language Culture Diversity Chapter 33 H cultural patterns that distinguish a society s elite 2 cultural patterns that are widespread among a society s population 3 cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society s population 4 perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the US and promoting equal standing for all cultural traditions a the dominance of European especially English cultural patterns b emphasizing and promoting African cultural patterns 5 refers to cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society a Example NeoNazis 6 the close relationships among various elements of a cultural system 7 Cultural Lag the fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others disrupting a cultural system Sociology 12015 12215 Week 2 8 Ethnocentrism practice ofjudging another culture by the standards of one s own culture 9 Cultural Relativism practice ofjudging a culture by its own standards Theories of Culture Chapter 34 1 traits that are part of every known culture 2 a Macrolevel b Cuture is a system of behavior by which members of societies cooperate to meet their needs c Cultura patterns are rooted in a society s core values and beliefs d How does a cultural pattern help society operate What cultural patterns are found in all societies 3 a Macrolevel b Cuture is a system that benefits some people and disadvantages others c Marx claimed that cultural patterns are rooted in a society s system of economic production Feminist theory says cutura conflict is rooted in gender d How does a cultural pattern benefit some people and harm others How does cutura pattern support social inequality 4 a Macrolevel b Cuture is a system of behavior that is partly shaped by human biology c Cultura patterns are rooted in humanity s biological evolution d How does a cultural pattern help a species adapt to its environment 5 theoretical approach that explores ways in which human biology affects how we create culture a Takes an evolutionary approach to the study of culture Sociology 12015 12215 Week 2 Culture and Human Freedom Chapter 35 1 What is one example of the constraint of culture a Because culture is largely a matter of habit we repeat many negative patterns of behavior in each new generation 2 Superheroes give people the opportunity to experience