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World History Notes (Lecture 3)

by: Hannah Corn

World History Notes (Lecture 3) HIST1011

Marketplace > George Washington University > History > HIST1011 > World History Notes Lecture 3
Hannah Corn
GPA 3.75
World History

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World History
One Day of Notes
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This 5 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Hannah Corn on Sunday January 25, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to HIST1011 at George Washington University taught by Downes in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see World History in History at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 01/25/15
The Ecologv of a New Global Svstem 16th and 17th Centuries What Bedan 500 Years AClO Ecological impact of the age of Empires might be approached by thinking about food Tomatoes potatoes hot chilies peanuts etc were only found in Americas Introduced to EuropeAsia in the 1500s 0 Human willfully altered the biological and geological patterns bringing food from one continent to another Humans and Microbes o16 th17th century human relationship with disease pathogens 0 Diseases moved from continent to continent oSome pathogens seem to have become less virulent 18th century global human population was increasing as deadly diseases died out Until about 1500 all residents of the Americas were descended from residents of the Americas genetically on the same stock same blood type for 10000 years Humans and their Environments increasing intervention oGrasslands planted forests fell lands drained and farmers 0 New sources of energy fats proteins etc 0 Led to ecological devastation but introduction of new appreciation for environment in the 18th century Famous First and Real Heroes Columbian Exchande Columbus descriptions of pineapple and manioc later sugarcane pigs sheep cattle chickens and wheat Juan Garrido black companion of Cortes 1st planter of wheat in Mexico Real quotheroesquot the plants and animals themselves Eurasia to Americas wheat rice sugar bananas coconuts pears peaches plums dandelions almonds sheep chickens pigs and diseases Africa to Americas yams okra collard greens Americas to the Old World corn potatoes sweet potatoes beans cacao squash vanilla turkeys 0 IMPORTANT yams potatoes and maize corn Feeding the Masses Maize Sweet Potatoes Potatoes Maize reached Europe and China very quickly accepted slowly oOriginally fit only to feed livestock o Eventually accepted by Mediterranean Balkans Ukraine parts of Russia Sweet potatoes reached China in 1560s Potatoes arrived in China 1605 but didn39t gain favor spread in India and Europe 0 Military peasants were ordered to grow potatoes forced people to gain a quottastequot for the potato o Potatoes are easy to conceal underground growth oOne of the few food sources that if you eat enough you can gain all the nutrients needed to sustain life 0 GO POTATO WOO Transfer the other wav Weeds Grass Animals European grass seeds weeds etc came across as uninvited stowaways o Helped bind soil and retained its water 0 Provided food for introduced grazing animals Large ruminant animals added to this mix horse cattle o NS America the existed grasslands seemed natural extensions of western Spain grasslands Wheat and climate oWheat grew well in Mexico oQuickly become badge of urban sophistication to eat wheat instead of maize Su arcane MOST SIGNIFICANT impact on world markets supply generates demand Rapidly became most important transocean trade good even though producing regions were relatively small 0 Brazil world39s greatest sugar producer Pernambuco sugar mill 0 Sugarcane requires a lot of labor increased demand for slave trade from Africa oCreated new American industries refining sugar and distilling rum oSugar became major cause of political conflict among European states Coffee Tea or Chocolate Rising availability of sugar gt rising popularity of originally bitter brews Coffee in Yemen was a major item in the Indian Ocean trading system by 1640 oSupplied Persia and Ottoman Empire Turks were dominated by Europe and found all the coca beans 0 Eventually reaches Europe Vienna oTransplanted coffee to new lands where supply could be controlled 0 Planted in Brazil French Indian Ocean islands Java Dutch etc Chocolate oBegan in Mesoamerica oSpread in beginning of the 17th century 0 Thomas Gage Englishman described its uses for his readers in 1648 Dutch took the cacao plant from native Americas to W Africa 0 17th Century Spanish still life with Chocolate shows how luxurious and wealthy drinking chocolate was 0 Chinese porcelain evidence of trade Platter silver Tea contributed to global trade but not exchange oChina supplied all the world demand until the 19th century Consequences of Ecolooical Exchande By 18th century people better nourished supplied with important medicinal products rising global population BUT invisible exchange played a role disease


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