Hist 111 Notes
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Homeric Society and The Values of the Hero 1 102212 World of Ancient Greece 0 Not just Greece but islands coast of Thrace coast of what is now Turkey coast of Italy and Sicily Four periods of time 1 Dark Age Homeric Greece 1100 800 BCE 2 Early Archaic and Archaic Greece 750 490 BCE 3 Classical Greece 5th and 4th centuries BCE 4 Hellenistic Greece 323 BCE onwards Microcosm shape of society shape of state values and attitudes Macrocosm reationship between gods and humans also bw gods and justice Homer Dark Age Greece 0 Virtually no written source why it s called the Dark Age 0 We rely on archaeology o The one thing we have that represents this time is two epic poems attributed to the poet Homer 0 Homer liadand 0dyssey750 700 BCE This is when the two poems are written down but they re ect a much older set of stories that re ect to the world World of the Poems Dark AgeHomeric Greece 1100 800 BCE Looks backwards to a time of wars and small kings We use Homer as a mirror We can see the re ection of the Greek world bw 1100 800 BCE The Iliad and Odyssey remain powerful texts throughout Greek and Roman history The Story in the Iliad o The topic in the liadis RAGE Rage means in Greek fury not just pissed off quotSing Goddessquot describes fury o The ght bw them is for two women who they refer to as prizes Achilles Oath quotOh this I swear the time will come when Achaea s sons all miss Achillesquot World of Small Wars War and the Community 0 World of nearly constant small wars and raids A man brags about plunder sacking the other people etc o The existence of the community depends on the ability to wage war 0 The responsibility of the community to wage war is held upon Promach0ithose who ght among the foremost Aristocrats Heroes Men who have horses armor chariots They hold land and have control of labor A hero in Homer s term is not a good guy It s a class term for aristocrats Community Oikos household Oikoi households Includes the aristocrat and his family his laborers animals elds people and stuff Hierarchy HOH Man Family Retainers l slaves I stuff In any community you would have found oikoi of different sizes The biggest oikoi is the house of the aristocrat Social Structure of the Homeric World Importance of Family Aristocrats patronymics son of and genealogies They have families that can trace back to famous heroes and gods You know someone is an aristocrathero if he has a patronymic identi ed by their fathers Free people farmers herdsmen etc Retainers people who are free but associate themselves with the household Slaves Slaves are mostly women Slaves are property prizes It was the practice of the aristocrats to kill all the men and enslave the women labor and sexual Ex Chryseis Not a world of social mobility you can t move up in society Community But No State 0 There is nothing we can call a state If a state is a central power that monopolizes the ability to administer laws and make justice means of violence and taxes there is nothing that can be called a state 0 The community dominated by aristocrats is represented by 2 institutions The king quotright and mightquot Holds the largest household Position is justi ed by birth family of kings and right claim to authority But Agamemnon s a king position depends on might The assembly rules procedures limits First assembly meets when a king calls it and is about whatever issues the king raises Or it can be assembled by another high up member of society Powers are very limited and narrow For the most part only the king and aristocrats speak The assembly s position is indicated by applauding or grumbling 0 But the king can just ignore this it only tells him what their opinions are 0 Murder and theft is not a public wrong There is no state responsible for these crimes No punishment for theft or murder unless the families kin pursue the wrongdoer vengeance 0 Limited notion of public no notion of crime as public wrong 0 For example claims and recourse about what is right in Book 1 Chryses asks Apollo for vengeance to give his daughter back bc there is nothing he can do about it only the gods can help Agamemnon offends Achilles by taking his prize but the assembly doesn t do anything So Achilles again appeals to the Gods Zeus isn t helping Achilles bc he s been screwed over he s helping bc he owes his mom Public problem refusal to return the daughter causes a plague that affects the entire community Gods answer appeals not bc of justice but because of honor and relationships bw gods Homeric Society and the Values of the Hero 2 102312 Sarpedon Explains Honor to Glaucus BM 1100 800 BCE people divided up into communities Oikos and family are the dominant institutions 0 Honor is what gives their lives meaning Sarpedon and Glaucus are both allies of Troy ghting for their own status at home Sarpedon and Glaucus are the promachoi They are rewarded for ghting a social task by meat drink land 0 By facing death and being a brave warrior they earn their own status 0 They need war to claim their virtues even if their own community isn t being attacked they need to go somewhere else to displaywin these virtues quotGlaucus why do they hold us both in honor rst by far with pride of place choice meats and brimming cups in Lycia where all our people look on us like gods Why make us lords of estates along the Xanthus banks rich in vineyards and plowland rolling wheat So that now the duty is ours we are the ones to head our Lycian front brace and ing ourselves in the blaze of war so a comrade strapped in combat gear may say Not without fame the men who rule Lycia these kings of ours who eat fat cuts of lamb and drink sweet wine the nest stock we have But they owe it all to their own ghting strength our great men of war they lead our way in battlequot Hector s Response to Andromache s Plea His wife tells him quotDon t go out to battlequot bc she has concerns What he gains in battle is honor as well as his father s honor quotWife all this concerns me too But I d be disgraced dreadfully shamed among Trojan men and Trojan women in their trailing gowns if I should like a coward slink away from war My heart will never prompt me to do that for l have learned always to be brave to ght alongside Trojans at the front striving to win fame for father and myselfquot Combat Prowess and its Effects Compete in many games In battle there is only a winner and a loser and the loser dies Very detailed about what terrible things happened to the body spears pierce eyeballs bones shattered etc Display of the skill of the winner and what happens to the loser Competition and Contention Violence translated into words Extends to warriors in their own communities when they are ghting with each other Achilles is held back by Athena can t use violence so uses nasty words to insult Agamemnon The Concrete Quality of Honor Community s Goodies Honor is won on the battle eld Honor is not abstractsymbolic it is concrete evident in wine land and the spoils of war The armor is given value by who owns it the greater the man it belonged to the greater the value to the man who wins it Plunder women prizes Take away the prize you take away the honor Ex Dishonoring Achilles by taking away his woman prize why he s so angry The pursuit of honor is moved by what people will say What Others Will Say Shame Culture Nemesis moral disapproval of others what people will say Aidos fear of disgrace shame he tries to avoid this Regulated by the approval or disapproval of others In a shame culture you worry about what others will say when they hear what you ve done Not motivated by their own guilt but shame Fame and Mortality o If we were immortal we wouldn t ght 0 But we are so we must ght and win fame so we can be remembered Human life is frail humans die Sarpedon and Glaucus quotAh my friend if you and I could escape this fray and live forever never a trace of age immortal I would never ght on the front lines again or command you to the eld where men win fame But now as it is the fates of death await us thousands poised to strike and not a man alive can free them or escape so in we go for attack Give our enemy glory or win it for ourselvesquot Glaucus and Diomedes Glaucus quotWhy ask me about my ancestry Generations of men are like the leaves In winter winds blow them down to earth but then when spring season comes again the budding wood grows more And so with men one generation grows another dies away But if you wish to learn about my family so you re familiar with my lineagewel many people know the detailsquot Book 6 Achilles wants to be acknowledged as the best warrior 0 By taking away the woman prize concrete manifestation of honor Agamemnon has taken away what Achilles is willing to die for 0 Honor is the compensation for death The Macrocosm The Gods Audience for Homeric poems was originally the aristocratic class 0 The poems mirrored the audience 0 At some point when the poems were memorized or written down we get a dual vision of the macrocosm Views of gods Warriors in the poem themselves see the gods a certain way The audience sees a different vision of the gods 0 Zeus is the king of the gods he is a lot like human kings Like humans family community with king have a sense of honor head of oikoi Unlike humans power over certain aspects of culture and nature ability to control the world that humans live in intervene in human affairs Apollo sends a plague Gods intervene for 2 reasons Favoritism of humans Own struggles with other gods But NOT because the humans did something wrong Zeus Hera amp Human Cities Gods are immortal they do not die 0 Their immortality and lack of vulnerability means that they never changedie o In an in nity of time any individual moral act signi cant to humans is very insigni cant to the gods Tension bw a signi cance of things to the humans but insigni cant to the gods Zeus doesn t want to ght with Hera so he tells Hera to go ahead and do what you want Towns are like checkers in a game of the gods The gods are always willing to sacri ce human beings in order to maintain relationships bw gods ZEUS quotInsatiable Hera How great are the pains that Priam and Priam s sons have heaped on you that you rage on relentless forever bent on razing the wellbuilt heights of Troy Only if you could breach their gates and their long walls and devour Priam and Priam s sons and the Trojan armies raw then you just might cure your rage at last Well do as you please But in the days to come don t let this quarrel breed some towering clash between us both pitting you and me in con ict One more thing take it to heart I urge you Whenever lam bent on tearing down some city lled with men you love to please myself never attempt to thwart my fury Heraquot HERA quotExcellent The three cities that I love best of all are Argos and Sparta MycenaeRaze them whenever they stir the hatred in your heart My cities will never rise in their defense not against you I d never grudge you your pleasurequot Book 4 quotQuarreling over Mortalsquot or quotA Good Dinnerquot Hephaestus to his mother Hera quotA troublesome matter this will prove unendurable if you two start ghting over mortal men like this inciting gods to quarrel If we start bickering we can t enjoy the meal our excellent banquetquot Early Archaic Greece The World of Hesiod 102412 Introduction 6566 Archaic Period 800750 500490 The Polls CityState The state not a nation Refers to the supreme public power within a certain territory Place with a central government Supreme public power Monopolize the means of violence Monopolize lawmaking and administration of law States have the authority to wage war not the people State has the right to tax for funding public things Relationship of individual and state The Greeks emphasized the citizens not the place Athenians not Athens For the Greeks the polls was its citizens States were much smaller one of the biggest Attica was about the size of Rhode Island The state had power over every aspect of the individual much more involved than modern gov t Early Archaic Polis A polis has a city urban center and also a countryside surroundings Ex Athens city and Attica region are both part of Athens citystate Polis was selfgoverning state not dominated by other states Rudiments of the Polls offices councils courts From Kings to Aristocrats No more kings Division of the king s powers and spread them out among offices and councils group of men who have a certain power Aristocrats birth and family Their lineage gave them a special authority Dominance of Aristocracy Land and property pg 43 Had the ability to control what happened to the property of other men This happened because there were clans group of peoplefamily Law and its administration Formulation of war wasn t public Crooked judges etc bc dominated by dishonest aristocrats Military dominance lron horses and weapons are very expensive so aristocrats who have the resources dominate Religion Hesiod s Fable of the Hawk amp the Nightingale 65 Tells us his perception of his society Resentment towards the power aristocrats had Aristocrats may dominate but there are public institutions and laws Hesiod c 700 A poetfarmer from Ascra in Boeotia north of Athens Not richaristocrat but not dirt poor Con ict with his cheating brother Perses Works and Days Theogony Speaks from living in a place that does have a public power Myth of Prometheus Works and Days 6062 and Theogony 3943 Tells us a lot about Hesiod s notion ofjustice Prometheus divine semigod but not among the greatest Chained to a rock eagle eating out his liver every night Trick at Mekone Stealing re Zeus saw this trick and made plans to punish humans took re Punishment Doesn t really t the crime all he did was trick Zeus Pandora The justice of Zeus 41 43 66 67 quotThe eye of Zeus sees all and understandsquot 67 Very different than Homer s Zeus where there is no justicemorality o Illustrates futility of anyone cheating In Homer you don t worry if you offend the gods fear of disgrace You offend Zeus by had behavior according to Hesiod Justice Cast into the quotHeavensquot Moral Force in Homer amp Hesiod Justice amp Law in Hesiod You individually and your family will pay for injustice maybe not now but in the afterlife o What distinguished humans from animals is law Morality is guaranteed by the macrocosm Life of quotNidhtindalesquot Small farmers artisans merchants traders From archaeological evidence we see that in the Archaic period there is an increase in prosperity of the entire Greek world people had more stuff 0 Iron increases in availability not just aristocrats who had it 0 Some artisansfarmers pull themselves up from poverty a little closer to aristocrats 0 Increase in Prosperity in Early Archaic Period Precarious Unstable lives of small farmers The Aristocrats crooked judgment could take everything away from you Hesiod is aware that nature is unstable and unpredictable You need a son or your oikos will disappear but too many children will divide up your resources too much Hesiod emphasizes that hard work is responsible for maintaining the household 0 The motivation in Hesiod and Homer is still the same 0 For Hesiod Evil amp Good Eris Strife Competition Evil strife doesn t do anything just destroys the city causes war Farmers competing with farmers just like in Homer it s competitive But the competitors are different 0 Role of the Wife in the Oikos Household Gender is de ned by history In Hesiod s woman is the kalon kakon Women are a mixed blessing Social Order amp Gender Pandora The Kalon Kakon Beautiful Evil The Development of the Polis Hoplites Lawgivers and Tyrants 102512 Archaic Greece The Emergence of the Polis Solon and Croesus Two focuses It s a period of intense struggle bw states Intense struggle within the citystates New classes challenge aristocratic dominance Rise of new class and desire for increase say in their communities is empowered by a change in military tactics The polis and the concept of citizenship rose out of the struggles The Question of Happiness 149 Tension and Con ict Population Pressure Land Debt Rise of quotMiddlequot Strata Population increase and colonization More people trying to make a living and living off the same amount of land The result was pressure on the existing land Those on the lower end of things fell into debt slavery aristocrats get control of thewland When someone can t pay back offers himself as collateral Individual citystates sent out colonies forming a new polis First wave took Greeks west Southern Italy Sicily Southern France Libya Second wave went east along the Black Sea Military Change Hoplites A change from aristocratic warfare to hoplite warfare Those making money in commerce gained a tool that enabled them to push the aristocracy to give them a political role The tool is changes in military tactics and techniques Hoplite warfare Hoplites were a line of heavily armed soldiers sword shield spear main weapon As long as the line held everyone was protected The line should not break Formation is everything not the ability of the individual but the entire line Effectiveness depends on working together more of a social reform of warfare The Homeric hero fought for his honor the hoplite fought for his polis because he wanted a say in how it was run Pressure bw the hoplites and the people in debt slavery led to 2 people The lawgiver and the tyrant Colonization and Its Effects Trade Contact and Law 0 Increased trade and supported the commercial classes Stimulated manufacturing and commerce 0 Colonization meant the spread of Greek civilization 0 The Greeks borrowed from more sophisticated cultures Art Egyptian Greek Sphinx To take a Greek citystate and make one somewhere else leads to self consciousness An awareness of the polls as an entity 0 Codi cation of law writing down of lawcustoms Also meant a reform No longer just exists with aristocrats The aristocrats resisted codi cation The larger community know the rules and can see them 0 Colonization didn t reduce strife at home 0 Still have population of farmers demanding a role in politics Lawgivers Example of Solon 594 0 Coming to power of a lawgiver and a tyrant 0 Political events of the 6th century BCE 0 Not just writing down the law but reforms of the political structure Solon major law giver Given a task of reforming the laws of Athens Three types of things he did Debt relief regulation of family and property and constitutional change 0 Debt Relief Citizen vs Slave Solon freed all of those who were in debt slavery He canceled their debts But didn t redistribute the wealth He said citizenship excluded slavery He de ned freedom and citizenship in terms of slavery 0 Regulation of Family amp Oikos When a man didn t have a son his property was left to the clan aristocracy took control Solon said that men without children could make a will and leave their property to the person named This meant that the oikos continued and didn t revert to the clan Men with daughters and no sons those daughters could quotinheritquot their father s property who they held for their own sons Individual oikos were protected and a guarantee that the person who headed the oikos had property Constitutional Reform Your propertywealth thus the oikos determined your participation in politics NOT social status He divided the citizen body into 4 property groups 1 the richest 4 the poorest Of ces Archon The highest of ce Open to the wealthiest the rst two classes Not just aristocrats anymore Assembly Open to all 4 classes Gathering of citizens or heads of oikos Then didn t elect someone to represent them He also regulated their functions Turns the assembly into a court of appeal Everyone could participate in judicial Council of 400 Like a senate Prepared the business for the assembly Open to the rst 3 classes The state comes to exist of individuals who were economically independent Concrete state means citizenship not slavery Tyrants Example of Pisistratus and Sons Hippias and Hipparchus 545510 BCE Came to rise through military struggles Rise of tyrants Hoplites Tyrannies usually didn t last very long Effects on Political Power and the State Festivals and Buildings For patron deities of the polls They built the rst Parthenon lt elaborates the community in a festive way Makes people in the community selfconscious Tyrant a man who rules outside of a legitimate authority He seizes power with backing of hoplites Pisistratus came to power Effects on Political Power and the State They break the of ces of the aristocracy Aristocrats continue as of cers Can t disturb the functioning of the state Had a centralizing effect Men turned to the central power and not the local aristocrat Cleisthenes 508 BCE New Organization of Citizens In the fall of the tyranny Cleisthenes promoted a program of reform that would give ordinary people more power 0 Established a different organization of the citizen body Divided Attica into quotneighborhoodsquot local units called demes o Deme as Mini Polis 139 of them Had of cials collected money festivals etc Membership in a deme is inherited in the male line Becomes a part of citizenship Then divided into 10 tribes 10 Tribes amp Council of 500 The tribes were the ways in which all political institutions military service and citizenship took place 50 men of each tribe were chosen to belong to a new council council of 500 The Polls Conclusions and Quali cations 0 At the end of the Archaic period the citizenship exists 0 lntense involvement in the community after 500 BCE This activity in the polls de ned Greeks as citizens and free 0 Free means two things Citizenship in an independent selfgoverning polis Living in a community where the rules are de ned by laws Political slogan in the 6th century is Eunomia well ordered state ruled by law Sparta quotTaller More Manly and More Terrifyingquot 102912 Typical Problem Atypical Solution Conquest of Messenia amp Circularity Archaic through Classical Greece 0 Typical was the population pressure land pressure demands of the hoplite class Atypical was the Spartan response In the course of 2 wars Sparta conquered Messenia and reduced its population to the status of laborers they were tied to the land that they farmed and provided for their Spartan masters Kleoris system was developed a lot of land with dependent labor that supplied the Spartan and his family with their basic needs so the Spartan could spend his life dedicated to being a soldier Education of Spartan Males Physical Fitness amp Obedience The way the education enshrined values and a system of honor A male s educated was from age 6 to age 30 Spartan women were trained in a similar way that produced physical tness 0 Childhood Physical Toughening Mothers Nurses Spartan mothers who taught these values to their sons Nurses were famous for their severity Barracks Life age 6 A boy went to live in a barrack with other boys of the same age group 1 Physical amp Material Hardship 2 Stealing Plutarch s Story of the Boy amp the Fox 3 Contests 4 Floggings at the Altar of Artemis Orthia Full training age 12 Rigors of Barracks life Encouraged to steal and foraging If they got caught they still got beaten Boys were banished at some point to the eldsmountains etc and were supposed to be able to support themselves off any source they could nd Contests furthered a desire for approval and an avoidance from dishonor Coming of Age age 18 Noncombatant role in the army Formal education Extremely limited They could read write but nothing else They learned a particular way of speaking that encouraged obedience to authority and particular values laconic say something without a lot of words in a concise way Let their hair grow long a signal of their entry to manhood Life in the public mess a public eating club Boys were supposed to go and was called upon by his officer to answer a question or sing a song needed to answer in a laconic way Ridicule and punishment Failure resulted in ridicule and punishment His thumb would be bitten More severe punishments for boys 18 years and older Flogging whipping Guardian and lover Pedagogical and sexual Both sexual and educational relationship The guardian was responsible for the young man s behavior and conduct Didn t organize it by males or females by whom was penetrated Relationships between older and younger men not between equals Reinforces the lines of authority and adds another dimension to the boys quest for honor and to avoid shame A relationship bw 2 equals was always a problem Front line soldierhoplite age 25 and full citizen age 30 Physically Spartan man was a superb citizen Spartan hoplite was the best soldier in the Greek world His education removed with from family Only at age 30 did he go to live with his wife and family Functional Principle of Education amp A Shame Culture Functional principle of education is that it is integral to a shame culture Spartans weren t moved by guilt but by public assessmentridicule Very eager to honor above all Public disapproval and scorn was almost unbearable Polis vs Oikos Public vs Private Life 0 Education Drawing Men Away from Family amp Property Men were driven away from the private interest of oikos and family So the Spartan women were in control of the oikos For 24 years his relationships were outside of the family All these ties were meshed in a military organization Society supported by 2 institutions marriage and public mess Marriage amp Home A young man was supposed to steal his bride her hair was cut and she dressed like a man Is it a disguise Does the bride turn into a soldier Many grooms continued to live in the barracks and snuck out to see their wives Public Mess Syssition He was supposed to eat his meal in the public mess from age 630 Spartan males were elected to join one of these Young boys attended one of them Important it was a school for manners behaviors conversation with elders 24 years of education with the emphasis on polls Education teachers an automatic response to society 0 Conclusion Sparta as the Extreme Example of the Priority of the Greek Polis Persian Wars Classical Greece 103012 Epitaph of Spartans Who Died at Thermopylae 480 quotGo tell the Spartans you who read We took their orders and are deadquot Persian Wars 490 amp 480479 BCE amp Greek Identity Persians invade Greece in 490 and in 480 o Depiction of Persians and Notions of what is Greek Notions of freedom Selfgoverning polis Law Eunomia wellordered state rules by law 6th century political slogan ldea until the Persian wars Persia Expansionist State amp Empire Originally Persians were subjects of the Medes Under Cyrus they took control of the Median kingdom Persians took control over the Greek city states Darius the grandson expanded the empire north and west Established a province in the area called Thrace 490 Darius invades Greece He s defeated at Marathon Around 484 Xerxes prepared to invade Greece Xerxes prepared to bridge Hellespont Cyrus Medes 550 Lydiac 544 Babylon 539 Cambyses Egypt 525 Darius Thrace Marathon 490 Xerxes Preparations for war bridging Hellespont Herodotus39 Greek Depiction of Xerxes and Persians 133 quotyoke of servitudequot Whipping the Hellespont 137138 Story of Pythius 138 Hybris prideaspiring beyond one s place 136 Greek means two things Hybris is when you aspire to more than when a mortal should aspire to Assume the power of the god Artabanus 136 Herodotus is a Greek only spoke Greek and not Persian Who could he have talked to He worked a generation after 480 BCE so he s dealing with Greek memories He gives a view of the Persian War after the Persian War from the Greek side Xerxes is barbarous and presumptuous Xerxes is depicted as a Greek tyrant ln Herodotus Persians appear as easily angered and slave drivers Herodotus Greek Depiction of Greeks 134 135 Demaratus 14041 Demaratus Dethroned Spartan king who is in exile He explains to Xerxes about the Greeks Xerxes doesn t understand how an army could stand up to his Demaratus explanation connects Freedom Law And military ability and virtue of the hoplite Therm0pvae and After News reached Greece of Persian preparations League of 481 Cooperation amp Divisiveness Also appears to have been amongst the citystates that agreed to resist Persia a disagreement among strategy Questions of strategy Defended from Central Greece or Isthmus Coordination of army and navy Thermopylae and Artemisium 7000 Hopites under Spartan King Leonidas at Thermopylae Sent to the Middle Gates a narrow piece of land between mountains and sea Greek eet was sent to Artemisium Leonidas39 Stand at Thermopylae There was a path throughout the mountains that could go around Greek s position So he sent people to reinforce this He held his position against the frontal attack of the Persians He had advantage of the narrowness of the position The Greeks thought they were better soldiers Problems Herodotus Picture of the Spartans Before Battle Picture of Spartans exercise and adorning their hair Xerxes can t believe this is what they are doing before battle quotmore tallerquot quote His depiction was that the king himself sent away many of the troops Could not withdraw without orders bringing dishonor Battle of Artemisium Greek and Persian eet fought an inconclusive battle After the eets separated the news of the defeat at Thermopylae came They both withdraw south Evacuation of Attica to Troezen Aegina Salamis Athenians have to persuade the eet to evacuate their troops to islands Fleet would cover the Athenians as they would evacuate their city Battle of Salamis 480 BCE Themistocles tricks the Greeks to ghting at Salamis The Greeks win a great battle at Salamis Looking at maps you can see how military important Salamis is From Herodotus about how the eet was organized suggests a very well planned operation and some last minute trick Effectiver ended the war There would be a land battle at Patea in 479 BCE But after Salamis Xerxes and most of his forces went home QUESTIONS OF STRATEGY THEMISTOCLES DECREE see below VS HERODOTUS39 ACCOUNT THERMOPYLAE AS LEGEND Themistocles Decree 3rd century inscription Reports to be a decree passed by the Athenian assembly before Thermopylae Artemisium Suggests that the evacuation of Attica was planned before the battle of Thermopylae and Artemisium If this was correct Thermopylae and Artemisium were not last standings they were sacri ced for a larger strategy Even if it s not a decree maybe it s just a different version of the events Did anyone know what was going on in the higher councils who were planning strategy Herodotus depiction was they fought really hard until the end 0 The Thebans surrendered Thermopylae was a sacri ce glorious defeat Was Thermopylae a major point in the Greek city 0 Why weren t they reinforced if it was such a major point 0 Despite all the glory and bravery did the hoplites die for no reason at all 0 Maybe the original plan is to hold the Persians to defend Central Greece Why was the Spartan king and his hoplites not reinforced Because of the slowness the strongest position north of the isthmus of Greece fell Feel because the king and the troops were not reinforced One historian says Leonidas was left insufficiently supported 0 Either Herodotus version is correct still have a problem or Herodotus represents one version o Allowed the Greeks to mark their difference from the Persians and their authority Athenian Democracy 103112 Introduction Parthenon Center of the city of Athens A fortress Principal sanctuary of the city s most important temples Most important was the temple to Athena patron god of Athens Less a product of Greek culture and more a product of the Athenian empire Ruins date from 437 432 BCE Ruins of the temple built from the tribute paid by the subjects of the Athenian empire 0 Democracy and Empire Also the head of an empire lt worried other Greeks disturbed the Spartans That empire is always cited by other Greeks as the cause of the Peloponnesian war lasted 27 years 0 War Empire and war intensi ed the struggle between Archaic states Stasis civil disorder lntensi ed by the Peloponnesian War 0 Crisis of Consciousness and Conscience Caused a crisis of conscience and consciousness that would involve the question of Where do you look for answers Microcosm or macrocosm Terms and Periods DemocracyDemokratia rule of the demos Demos could mean people rule of the mob not a neutral term lsegoria equality of speaking Herodotus Speaking in the assembly lsonomia equality of political rights Everyone regardless of birth status or wealth has the same political rights Moderate Democracy 508 462 BCE Cleisthenes eta Cleisthenes 508 BCE New Organization of Citizens 0 Break up of aristocratic networks 0 Deme as Mini Polis Theses demes were divided among 10 tribes Demes assigned to 10 tribes Basis of all political and military organization Political institutions Military organization Citizenship 0 Council of 500 50 men from each tribe were chosen to be put on the council Property quali cations to hold a certain of ce or serve on the Council of 500 o No pay for participation Radical Democracv o Ephialtes and Pericles 462 BCE Represented demands of lowest Solonian class The poor has everything to do with empire Empire depended on the eet Fleet depended on the lowest class Lower classes eet empire and democracy Direct participation pg 179180 Institutions of Athenian Democracv Think about what it meant to participate in these institutions Athenians did not elect representatives Each citizen participated as directly The common POV was that membership meant participation You should be paying attention to the state and participating in it Popular courts Fundamental to radical democracy In early 6th century during Solon most cases were brought in front of one of 9 officials archons who would then give a verdict in a particular case If it was controversial it would be sent to the entire assembly However in the 4th and 5th century the process is totally different Archons operate only as officials to direct traffic 10 or 12 courts each dealing with different crime The archon would direct the case to a particular court The decision of the court was made by juries Consisted of 500 men Verdict was determined by majority vote Not courts of appeal once the decision was made nothing you can do about it Supposed to represent the demes entire people The courts are connected with the assembly Dominance of the assembly By the mid 5th century Athenian assembly was the central institution of the state All power and authority came from it Legislated one very matter of signi cance n the Athenian state Issues of war peace empire foreign affairs army and navy levies public works religion lt s decrees were sovereign Every male citizen 18 and over could attend the assembly and could vote Met every 9 days Anyone could get up and talk lsegoria Council of 500 Chosen by lot everyone s name is put into a jar and picked Elected for one year could serve 2 years of your life Every man of every property class was eligible Offices by lot and by election generals All chosen by lot Office was not a channel to power Athenians were very suspicious of office bc it was associated with aristocracy Offices were popularized limited in scope Of ces were divided into function and were not singular a board of men Boards of 10 Served for one year Election by lot Generals 10 elected Had access to Council of 500 They were the leaders of the people Elected for one year could hold multiple years Military experts Calling of cials to account People who held of ce were checked on 0 Leadership Didn t arise out of holding of ce Came from the ability to persuade and represent the people demos Came form the assembly supporting the policies that the people advocated Connections Support of demos Ostracism 487 BCE Athenians were allowed to exile any one man for 10 years each year First the assembly was asked if they wanted an ostracism If they wanted one then each person in the assembly writes the name of a person on the pottery that they wanted to go for 10 years If you wanted to be a leader you had to represent the people of the assembly 0 Pay for Participation You were paid for holding of ce etc People of the lower classes can participate without an economic disadvantage Athenian Women Citizens o Inequality in property law family and political rights 0 Women were citizens By Pericles Law 451 both parents had to be citizens 0 Religious participation Family state public festivals plays of religious activity 0 When men reached the age of 30 they were supposed to become head of the oikos 0 Women had property in the form of dowries But she had no control of the property First under the control of her father then her husband 0 Under control of a guardian Kyrios Men had a guardian until they were 18 But women were always under the control of a guardian father brother husband 0 No ability to act in law except divorce or evidence under oath o The law attempted to protect widows and orphan girls 0 Had no ability to put forth the law on their own behalf 0 Their rights in law were limited to say the least Pericles citizenship law had these effects It nurtured a concern with female chastity obsession with sexual access to women not bc of desire but because of the status of the mother Make sure the child was yours and was a citizen Sequestering of women of middling classes They didn t go outside their houses Seemed to encourage early marriage and age inequality of spouses 14 year old girls 30 year old men Inequality in experience and education women weren t highly educated o No political rights or participation In a society de ned by isonomia and isegoria Pericles on Athenian women Women were not supposed to speak or be spoken about Exclusions Democracy rule of many vs Oligarchy rule of few 0 Citizens were a minority of the population who lived in Athens 40000 50000 out of 250000 0 Didn t include citizen women noncitizen residents or slaves Democracy not oligarchy but minority rule 0 Totally under the authority of the state in which they lived In terms of the citizen body it is a radical democracy 0 The democratic polis like any polis meant the rule of the minority Empire and War 110112 Introduction 0 Athens and its Empire Pericles funeral oration quotMighty indeed are the marks and monuments of our empire In icted on our enemiesquot Democracy amp Empire Demos amp Fleet 0 Working De nition of Empire amp Imperialism Empire is a political system organization between states In which one state Athens dominatesrules other states and other people Empire involves expansion domination and exploitation From Delian League to Athenian Empire 0 Delian League 477 BCE A group of states that opposed the league joined together called the Delian League Most of the members are on the seaside vulnerable by sea Met on the island of Delos Purpose to free all Greeks that were still under Persian control also to punish the Persians by raiding their territory Contributed ships or money for ships to the league The policy of the league was to be determined by the assembly Assembly of states Athens as leader Successful within 10 years The more successful they were the more people they got As it was successful Athens grew increasingly authoritarian take control of the league and transform allies into subjects Money instead of ships dependence and compulsion Athenians used the additional money to enlarge their own eet They could compel a state to contribute money Voluntary contribution of money becomes the forced contribution quotRevoltsquot and enforcement of tribute Some of the allies subjects wanted out The Athenians disallowed anyone to withdraw A move from league to empire in 454 BCE Transfer of treasury from Delos to Athens 454 BCE Athenian Treasury contained a lot of money The Athenians declared that the treasury could be used by them as a reserve and they could borrow from it whenever they needed The Athenian assembly begins to decide how the money is spent The Athenian Council of 500 begins to assess tribute for league members every 4 years Assessments amp Use of Tribute 160 to Athena In 454 BCE Athenians declared that 160 of the tribute of the year was to be paid into the treasury of Athena patron god of Athens Tribute 400 talents expenses of empire and Athenian state 454 BCE Modes of Control Practices of Imperialism Disaffection among the allies Garrisons commanders walls and forti cations dismantled After the revolt had occurred they were now vulnerable They put troops garrisons into the state to keep it in order Seizure of land con scation of territory and settlement of Athenian citizens Athenians took part of the territory divided it up into lots and distributed it to Athenian citizens Interference in internal affairs of subject states Political officers sent to a state they d supervise affairs and fostered democracies Athenian assembly would pass decrees to take care of people Regulated that certain types of cases would have to be taken to Athens for judgment Use of Athenian coins weights and measures Athenians insisted that everyone used Athenian coinage Controls their economy Creates an inside Athens and Athenian empire and outside those who don t belong Views of Empire Despotism and Tyranny o Athenians acknowledged that they were a tyrant city 0 A city on lesbos revolted against Athens got very angry but then met to reconsider o Revolt of Mytilene 427 BCE Ceon quotYour empire is a despotism do not give into the three failings most fatal to empirepity sentiment and indulgencequot Pericles quotFor what you hold is to speak somewhat plainly a tyranny to take it perhaps was wrong but to let it go is unsafequot Pelooonnesian War 431404 BCE 0 War between Athenian empire and Sparta 0 Empire and war Thucydides Great but difficult writer Conservative suspicious view of the democracy Came from an upperclass family who served as one of 10 generals in 424 He claimed that Athenian power is what caused the problems Exiled because of a military faiure Didn t return to Athens until after the war 0 quotGreatest movement yet known in historyquot Thucydides view of the Peloponnesian War 0 Had a very negative affect on the pois Exhausted the Greek world 0 Signi cance amp Repercussions o Extent of Con ict Battles were fought in mainland Greece Theaters Lives Athenians ost14 of their population during the plague Sent a huge force to Sicily defeated at Syracuse 413 BCE Ships Sicilian Expedition lost 170 ships 415413 BCE Arginusae 406 BCE manned a eet of 110 ships Money 433422 BCE Athenians borrowed 5600 talents from the sacred treasuries Enough to pay years and years of wages of 100000 men Protraction of Con ict Blocks of States Bases of Power League and empire War during hopite warfare was very short Wasn t limited in terms of participants or the battle ground One battle wasn t going to determine the outcome Fought by an empire not individual states No decision could happen while Athens or Sparta lasted one had to surrender Athens sea power draw vs Sparta land power win Athens had an advantage they just needed to not confront the Spartans To draw meant that they got to held on to their empire so they won One had to be destroyed for the war to end Causes of the con ict and aims of the two sides Athenian empire is opposed by the Spartans who refused to surrender Athens and Empire Sparta and League head of extensive lead of states Politicians in both Sparta and Athens had an interest in the war continuing Spartans demand that the Athenians let go of their empire Athenians thought that the loss of the empire would destroy them quotFor what you hold is is a tyranny to take it perhaps was wrong but to let it go is unsafequot Pericles Cut off Athenian nancial sources and the grain supply Strategy of Pericles Causes amp Aims The End of the War 404 War Brutality and Stasis 110512 Disloyal Allies Defeated Cities and Prisoners Brutath Greeks had a lust for annihilation Disloyal allies and defeated cities City of Mytilene on Lesbos 428427 BCE Cleon It was an ally of Athens not subject to the Athenians Revolted expecting that the Spartans would come to their aid When the aid didn t come they surrendered to the Athenians Politician named Cleon assembly voted to kill every adult male and enslave every woman and child The next day they reversed this decision A second ship was sent out the walls of the city were turned down The city surrendered all of their ships All of Lesbos was divided into 3000 lots The people of Lesbos farmed their own land for the Athenians Melos 416 BCE Melian Dialogue ROL 16D The Melians didn t pay their tribute to the Athenians When the Athenians arrive they demand that Melos submit to their empire Refused to submit but nally surrendered The assembly met and decided that all the men were to be killed and women and children to be put into slavery Sicilian Expedition Prisoners at Syracuse 413 BCE In 415 BCE the Athenians decided to invade Sicily Athens suffered a major defeat In the retreat many died 7000 Athenians and allies survived They were put into limestone pits Stasis Civil War at Corcyra 427 BCE ROL 16C Illustrates a very important aspect of the 27 year war The internal struggle in the Greek state were intensi ed by a world war between Sparta and Athens Background From Eunomia to lsonomia Eunomia wellordered state ruled by law Freedom meant living with Eunomia Change the laws Who ruled By the few de ned by wealth or birth What does citizenship mean lsonomia equality of political rights Strife the rule of the many or the rule of the few This problem was intensi ed by the struggle bw Athens and Sparta lntensi ed bc the democrats needing supports inside the state would call on the Athenians Factional Struggle quotThe Manyquot vs quotThe Fewquot Situation at Corcyra Corcyra Corinth Spartans amp Athenians The situation in Corcyra was complex but in brief the war between Sparta and Athens intensi ed tensions in the city between oligarchic and democratic groups Early in the war Corcyra was an ally of Athens Earlier in 433 in a battle between Corcyra and Corinth the Corinthians had captured 250 Corcyraean prisoners trained them for subversion and sent them back to Corcyra The returnees sought to end Corcyra s alliance with Athens By 427 con icts over alliance with Athens had grown into civil war The immediate circumstances for the revolution begin in 427 BCE on the instigation of the democratic faction ve members of the oligarchic faction were sentenced to pay a large ne The oligarchs broke into a meeting of the council assassinated sixty of their opponents and seized power When a Corinthian ship with Spartan envoys aboard envoys arrived the oligarchs encouraged by their presence attacked the democrats Bitter ghting ensued At this point twelve Athenian ships with 500 hoplites arrived and they managed to stop the ghting A few days later a Peloponnesian eet of fty three ships approached Corcyraeans manned sixty ships to meet them but they sailed in such confusion that they had to ee with Athenian ships protecting them The next day the democratic and oligarchic factions came to terms with each other and together manned thirty ships But Peloponnesian eet however had retreated upon hearing of the approach of sixty Athenian vessels When Athenian ships arrived the democrats attacked oligarchs and a full scale civil war followed Thucydides39 Account of Stasis at Corcyra quotEvery form of death prevailed and whatever is likely in such situations happened and still worsequot He describes the butchering and killing His sentences are as savage as the actions were Fathers kill sons Suppliants people who wanted to seek refuge go to an alter killed at or on alters Twisted Behavior Blood weaker than quotpartyquot lt counted more which political side you were on than who you were related to No one trusted anyone else Overthrow institutions Associations and connections bw men in civil struggle were founded not on institutions neighborhoods tribes but on the desire to destroy the institutions Complicity in crime not religious sanction Not like you swore loyalty to one group or another Because you were involved in criminal crime Honor and simplicity laughed down Simplicity found in noble natures disappeared bc it became ridiculous No respect for oath or promise Fear of losing most compelling Twisted Words Recklessness l Courage Prudent hesitation l Cowardice Moderation Unmanliness Senseless Anger l Manliness Causes Opposition of Athens amp Sparta War itself War makes the supply of daily needs dif cult food shelter drink The effect on daily life means that people are confronted by demanding needs Does war get people used to a world of violence and cruelty Greed and ambition Leadership of both parties based on ambition spoke about defending the polls Oligarchs demanded a moderate democracy Used any means possible to gain their own power Gave rise to excesses and vengeance One standard the whim of party Ungoverned passions of men human nature More basic than a lust for power was men s ungoverned passions lntensi ed by ill treatment and poverty Private hatreds Envy Gives rise to violence and theft Thucydides on Stasis and Human Nature 0 Human nature is a general thing 0 A view of human nature is shaped by history The Sophists Crisis and New Ways of Seeing 110612 Human Intelligence vs Divine Knowledge Prophesy Pericles Courage and Intelligence quotNot courage alone but an actual sense of your superiority should animate you as you go forward against the enemy This sense of superiority comes only to those who like us have real reasons for knowing that they are better placed than their opponents and when chances on both sides is equal it is intelligence that con rms couragethe intelligence that makes one able to look down on one s opponent and which proceeds not by hoping for the best but by estimating what the facts are and thus obtaining a clearer vision of what to expectquot Pericles Human intelligence not the favor of the gods Pericles Religion Sacri ce and Prophecy Wasn t against religion he participated in festivals honoring Athena Consulted the oracle at Delphi Places in the Greek world where it was thought that the Gods communicated to humans Most famous was oracle at Delphi people would ask it a question Chorus in Sophocles Oedipus the King quotThey are dying the old oracles sent to Laius now our masters strike them off the rolls Nowhere Apollo39s golden glory nowthe gods the gods go downquot 0 War Empire Democracv Effect on Custom and Tradition 0 War daily life brutality cruelty Political instability words and actions War intensi ed stasis 0 Empire importance of power ln Melian dialogue the Athenians speak only in terms of power Justice exists when power is equal 0 Empire relativity of custom Archaic period Athenians moved out and came into trade with other empires Continued this tradition of becoming familiar with other customs Custom starts to be seen as local not universal lntensi ed by empiredemocracy Allowed its citizens to choose different courses of action 0 Democracy choosing and persuasion Importance of talk and persuasion existed as it hadn t before 0 Appeal to traditional standards poets vs other teachers and thinkers Poets like Sophocles represent tradition Emphasized that human intelligence is what counts May not be persuasive because of empire and war Other thinkers enter the picture phenomenon of the late 5th century New teachers wrote about standards and experiences in a different way Traditionally poets expressed tradition custom by telling stories Instead of telling stories the new teachers asked what the general principle lied behind the stories Socrates 469 399 BCE o Athenian citizen 0 Hoplite councilor Wasn t poor 0 Inquiry in the right conduct of life What is the right way to live 0 Questions questions questions Aristophanes The Clouds 0 Trial for impiety and corrupting the young SODhiStS Persoectives and Arquments Teachers amp Writers Pay Oratory Argument A struggle about how to see the world They were hired to teach students how to speak effectively and argue persuasively The ability to be persuasive are the tools of success 0 quotMan is the Measurequot Protagorus All knowledge was human centered Anything concerning human existence was subject to the use of the human mind analytical thinking No power beyond human feeling and human thought Questioning Gods amp Customs Protagorus Senseless to let your thoughts be controlled by custom or religion Emphasis on reason 0 Different specialties One was an expert in math physical science grammar etc 0 Seeing from Both Sides Protagorus More than one way to see things Protagorus was the rst to build arguments on that basis 0 Teaching oratory and argument This is what their students paid them for o Arguments from Expedience likelihood and interest Debate over Mytilene 4287 BCE Cleon vs Diodotus Don t argue about what is right orjusti ed About whether to kill the men and enslave the women and children Sensible men don t consider justice just their interest CLEON quotIf right or wrong you determine to rule you must carry out your principle amp punish the Mytilenians as your interest requires or else you must give up empire amp cultivate honesty without dangerquot DIODOTUS quotThe question before us as sensible men is not their guilt but our interestquot 0 Argument from Nature Antiphon What is likely is that men act according to their nature Nomos customconventionIaws vs Physis Nature From nature s POV men tend to act according to physis Laws are things that men pass Justice is that if people are looking don t break the law steal etc Melian Dialogue They have appealed to tradition stick with the Spartans The law of nature is that the powerful rule where they can Epilogue Socrates 469399 BCE Confusion between Socrates amp Sophists Apology Socrates39 Questions 0 quotManquot at the Center of Inquiry Plato39s Republic the Polis Justice amp Metaphysics 110712 Chorus was females dressed as clouds The four actors would wear grotesque masks Aristophanes The Clouds Excremental and sexual jokes Sap stick Sight gags large leather penis Political jokes and jibes Plot 0 The Thinkery is run by the greatest sophist of them all Socrates He wants his kid to learn how to cheat the creditors He fails so he pushes his son who does great Agonl Philosophy vs Sophistry Old Education vs New Education Two men with rooster heads Contest between them He doesn t exactly take the side of the Old Education Pg 97 3 D s duty discipline decorum New Education spends most of its time tearing down the Old Education Pg106 Behave as you want then if you get caught you can talk your way out of it Three Questions What do you nd funny in the play What do you think the Athenians found funny in The Clouds What does The Clouds tell us about Athens in 423 BCE Ridiculing Sophists Aristophanes ridicules sophists He ridicules what they do have to say etc Pg 2829 quotMy boy that little hovelquot They teach oratory and persuasion Science 3233 Socrates 3940 Gods as quotvulgar superstitionquot 41 5354 Sophistic grammar 74 Sophistic logic 113 Sophistic oratory as trickery 2829 The son uses sophistic oratory to dismiss nomos Athenian practice is that the father was guardian of oikos When the son reached 30 the father would retire The son beats his dad doesn t feel bad justi ed by sophistic argument Pg 136137 Nature wins Pg 140 You got what you asked for Strepsiades He s a farmer Man without culture or class He s a cheater 0 Pg 30 amp 41 His goal quotI have heard that they teachquot