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Y375 Weeks 1&2

by: M. Stevens

Y375 Weeks 1&2 POLS-Y375

Marketplace > Political Science > POLS-Y375 > Y375 Weeks 1 2
M. Stevens
GPA 3.6
War and International Conflict
Karen Rasler

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War and International Conflict
Karen Rasler
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by M. Stevens on Monday January 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLS-Y375 at a university taught by Karen Rasler in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 154 views.

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Date Created: 01/26/15
POLSY375 Weeks 1 amp 2 What is Terrorism Terrorism by nonstate actors Terrorism is committed by states but that is not the focus Perpetrators nonstate actors Targets general public noncombatants Purpose intimidation and fear Objectives Political Goals Tactics vary 0 Most suicide attacks end in 10 fatalities or less Terror attacks 20002013 Concentrated in 56 countries 0 Responsible for over 50 and on the rise Source Global Terrorism Report 2013 82 of terrorism deaths occurred in Afghanistan Pakistan Syria Iraq and Nigeria 66 4 Groups ISIS Boko Haram Taliban AlQaida Deaths in 2013 were 5X the deaths in 2000 3361 to 17958 20122013 Increase in Terror Attacks Iraq 164 Nigeria 30 Afghanistan 13 Pakistan 28 Syria 71 72 of terrorism occurs during serious internal con ict Targets Private citizens mainly but declining as police attacks rise Effort to prove government cannot protect the people Suicide Terrorism Boko Haram Young female suicide bomber kills 16 at Nigerian market Ian 112015 Transnational Suicide Terrorism Dina Ramazanova 18 Russian widower of ISIS member became suicide bomber in Istanbul Suicide Terrorism Violent attack in which an attackers expects to die during the mission ex Moscow Metro bombings 2010 40 killed gt80 wounded by 2 young women associated with extremists Vast Increase Suicide Bombings 2013 2014 Middle East 163 370 Iraq 98 271 Lebanon 3 13 Yemen 10 29 Note Yemen Parliament overthrown Jan 2015 Modern Origins of Suicide Terrorism Place Lebanon Time 1983 Hezbollah suicide attacks against US amp French Tactic originated from Iranian advisers in Lebanon Spreads to Wes Bank Gaza Sri Lanka Kashmir and Chechnya Theory for why Terrorism Robert Pape s Dying to Winquot 2005 Suicide attacks are strategic 0 Not random Isolated attacks by fanatics Goals are local and nationalist not religious Political Objective withdrawal of foreigners A strategy of national liberation against foreign occupation and the subversion of local government supported by foreigners Why Occupation Fuels Suicide Terrorism Foreign occupier generates local rebellion 0 Power asymmetry encourages suicide terrorism Imbalance in military power ex US technology vs local lack thereof Insurgents find it cheap and effective Insurgents signify that civilians are not safe and future attacks will occur Occupier generates quotcollectivequot grievances that increase the demand for revenge Grievances are rooted in widespread humiliation amp resentmentquot among local population How foreign occupiers incite revenge taking Nationbuilding policies that alter local livelihoods 0 Loss of jobs access to socialwelfare aids travel permits etc o Dissolution of key institutions ie military 0 Lack of safety for children and women from local criminals Policies that violate local cultural normsquot 0 Sexual contact between occupiers and local women 0 Female occupiers in positions of power 0 Occupiers mishandle sacred icons ie Koran Two more ways that occupation policy incites revenge taking Security policies 0 Military check points strip searches housetohouse raids o Arbitrary amp indefinite arrests including elderly women and children 0 Human Rights Violations Ex Abu Ghraib Iraq 2004 Collateral Damage innocent death in the process of occupiers missions 0 Intelligence failures result in wrongful deaths o Occupiers inadvertently kill or injure citizens during military operations especially in urban areas amp via night time raids All of this generates resentment and backlash Occupation Policies Serve Insurgents Interests Occupation policies radicalize local populace Insurgents offer a strategy that empowers local community Suicide terrorism salvages selfrespectquot and overcomes a situation of quothopelessnessquot


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