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Meiosis II

by: MaKena Betler

Meiosis II BIO 105 Cr.4

MaKena Betler
UW - L
General Biology
No professor available

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Lecture 26: Meiosis II
General Biology
No professor available
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by MaKena Betler on Thursday November 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 105 Cr.4 at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse.


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Date Created: 11/12/15
Lecture 26 Meiosis II o Meiosis II is similar to mitosis but sister chromatids are not identical 0 The steps of meiosis ll occur without a second DNA replication 0 Sister chromatids remain attached and no DNA replication occurs Sister chromatids attach to kinetochore microtubules and align at midpoint Proteolysis of cohesions releases sister chromatids which are segregated in anaphase ll Telophase and cytokinesis ll produce four cells total haploid number of chromosomes 1n2 Note that each of the four products of meiosis have chromosomes that are distinct from each other and from any of the parental con gurations each gametespore is practically unique 0 Meiosis vs Mitosis O The major differences between mitosis and meiosis is how the chromosomes align on the spindle at metaphase and are segregated at anaphase Meiosis has two unique gures Synapsis Homologous chromosomes pair all along their lengths in meiosis l Reduction division No chromosome duplication between the two meiotic divisions Produces haploid gametes Crossing over occurs in meiosis l Prophase l is the longest and most complex stage Nonsister chromatids trade segments of DNAcrossing over Results in chromatids that have a combination of DNA from both mother and father Results in genetic recombination After crossing over occurs sister chromatids of a chromosome are no longer identical Crossing over results in exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids Homologues are temporarily held together by chiasmata Chiasmata regions where the nonsister chromatids are attached due to crossing over The homologues separate and are distributed to separate cells Daughter chromosomes derived form sister chromatids are no longer identical 0 Genetic Variation o Asexual reproduction produces genetically identical clones 0 Sexual reproduction cause novel genetic recombination can harm help or not make any difference to offspring Genetic RecombinationVariation 0 Causes offspring to have a different combination of genes than their parents 0 Asexual organisms must rely on mutations to generate variation among the offspring This is sufficient because they have great numbers of offspring 0 Variation results from crossing over independent assortment and random fertilization Meiosis brings about genetic variation 0 Crossing over between homologous chromosomes 0 Independent assortment of homologous chromosomes 0 Fertilization bringing genes from two parents together Independent Assortment and Variation 0 Independent assortment in a cell with only three pairs of chromosomes result in 23 or eight combinations 0 In humans with 23 pairs of chromosomes the combinations possible are 223 or 8388608 possible gamete combinations Independent Assortment and Random Fertilization o Gamete receives on homologue chromatid from each of the chromosome pairs 0 The particular homologue in each gamete is random independent from others resulting in many combinations individual assortment Fertilization and Variation 0 When gametes fuse at fertilization chromosomes donated by parents combine 0 Chromosomally different zygotes from same parents are 4 any 4951760200000000000000000000 6 combinations of genetically different zygotes are possible for one couple


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