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Biology 102 Notes, Week 10

by: annazeberlein

Biology 102 Notes, Week 10 BIOL102

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These are the notes for the week of 3/22-3/24, from plant nutrition and transport to invertebrate bilateral symmetry.
Concepts/Apps in Biology II
Dr. Heather Pritchard
Class Notes
Biology, biology 102
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by annazeberlein on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL102 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Heather Pritchard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Concepts/Apps in Biology II in Biology at College of Charleston.


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Date Created: 03/29/16
• Secondary growth o Occurs by lateral meristems o Vascular cambium produces secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem § Temperate areas form growth rings like in trees • Early wood and late wood based on rainfall o Growth rings § Only about 10-20% of the tree is actially alive • Sapwood (light in color, active water and sugar transport) • Heartwood (dark in color due to absorption of toxins) § Hardwoods • Resistant to indentation • Have vessel elements § Softwoods • Tracheids only o Cork cambium produces the periderm which replaces the epidermis § Known as cork and bark § When harvesting cork, they have to be sure they don’t tap into the phloem or they will kill the tree § When the cork is harvested (girdling) it makes the tree more susceptible to infection Chapter 26 – plant nutrition and transport - Plants require nutrients o On average, 16 chemical elements § Necessary for growth (flowering and fruiting) § Life cycle completion o Basic needs § 96% is carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen • CO2 from air to assimilate sugars • H2O from the soil o Makes up 80-90% of the plant § 4% is nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorous o Hydroponic growth § One of the ways to maintain complete nutrition o Nitrogen § An essential mineral with the greatest effect on plant growth § Required for • Proteins, nucleic acids, chlorophyll, and other important organic molecules § Plant adaptation • Carnivorous (Venus fly traps) • Mutualistic relationships - Soil quality determines plant nutrition and growth o Texture and composition determine water and mineral availability § Soil particles size § Sand, silt, clay, and humus (organic material) o Loam is the best soil quality § Water doesn’t move easily through this, allowing plants to access it - Agriculture o Changes the health of soils o Poor techniques (conventional) § 30% of farmland is unusable because the nutrients in the soil have been so depleted § In contrast to natural ecosystems, agriculture • Taxes water reserves by irrigation • Trigger leeching (a depletion of mineral content due to poor agricultural practices) • Encourages erosion (loss of the topsoil, where you find loam, humus, and most plants require 10 inches of this) § No farms, no food! o Sustainable agriculture movement § Soil conservation, sustaining farms and agriculture • New strategies to minimize the damage to the soil to reduce massive amounts of erosion • Healthy environment and public § Better irrigation • Win/win, reduce the huge drain on water resources • Prevent chemical changes in soil by not over-watering § Better fertilizers • Bad: commercially produced fertilizers o Contain mined or industrially processed minerals o Easily leached from soil and contribute to run off and water pollution • Good: “organic” fertilizers o Derived from a carbon source o Composed of manure, fishmeal, or compost (biological origin) o Releases nutrients gradually so less are wasted (not just salt ions or nitrogen that run off) § Prevent erosion • Reducing the thousands of acres of farmland that are lost every year o Plant barriers to wind o Contour tillage (utilizing the landscape to plant crops, alternating them with a shorter crop with a taller one) - How plants derive nutrients from soil o Roots absorb water and minerals § Occurs across the epidermal surface area • Increased by root hairs • And symbiotic relationships with fungi: mycorrhizae o Other root symbiotic relationships § Soil bacteria (rhizobium) § Some species of plants (legumes or beans) § Form “infectious nodules” or nitrogen factories o Roots control water uptake § By casparian strip within endodermis • Outermost cell layer of vascular cylinder • Forces water to move into cells • The plasma membrane is selective (this is where the control is) • At this point the water moves into the xylem o Water transport through xylem § Cohesion – tension theory § Evaporation (transpiration) pulls water up • Uses negative tension § Regulates water loss by stomatal control o Sugar transport through xylem § Sugars produced by photosynthesis are moved by positive pressure § Translocation is always from source to sink § Pressure flow theory • Positive pressure by osmosis § Sinks • Sites of utilization • SAM, roots, flowers, and fruits • During times of fruit production, fruits act as a huge sink and vegetative growth slows greatly (the leaves won’t grow as quickly because all the sugars are being used to make the fruit) Animals – chapters 23 & 24 - 2 major groups: o 1. Invertebrates § Do not have a backbone (majority) § 1,950,000/2 million species do not have a backbone o 2. Vertebrates § Possess vertebrae (a backbone) and most a skull – allows for complex movements § Internal skeleton of bone or cartilage § 50,000 species/2 million - What characteristics define an animal? o 1. Eukaryotic o 2. Multicellular o 3. Ingestive o 4. Lack cell walls o 5. Reproduce sexually (some are asexual) o 6. Embryos have similar developmental stages o 7. Most are actively mobile - Evolutionary trends o 1. Body symmetry § A) Radial symmetry • Body parts are arranged around a central axis § B) Bilateral symmetry • Only one plane possible for a mirror image • Favors cephalization – head development, centralized nerves in head region o 2. Development of tissue layers § 3 embryonic tissue (germ) layers § Ectoderm • Skin and nervous system § Mesoderm • Muscle, skeleton § Endoderm o 3. Type of gut § A) Incomplete (sac with one opening) § B) Complete (tube with two openings) • Complete gut forms two ways from embryonic ball o Protostomes – first opening becomes the mouth, second becomes the anus o Deuterostomes – first opening becomes the anus, second becomes the mouth o 4. Body cavity § Space between gut and body wall • A) Acoelomate o Solid body • B) Pseudocoelemate o Unlined cavity • C) True coelom o Lined cavity o 5. Body segmentation § Most animals have this § Repeating units allow for specialization § Increases mobility • Things held in place with membranes, allows for freer body movements § May only be seen in embryos - The simplest animal in existence today: a placozoan o Found in a marine aquarium o Has 2 cell layers - Phylum Porifera: Sponges o Most are marine o Sessile (stuck in one location) so they’re filter feeders o Multicellular, but have no body symmetry (no organ systems to have symmetry around) o No tissues, no gut, no segmentation o They resemble a colonial choanoflagellate o Consist of specialized cells that exhibit cellular recognition § Sponge structure and protection maintained by glass-like spicules o Reproduce asexually or sexually § Hermaphrodites, produce sperm and eggs § The larva are motile - Evolution of tissue layers o - Phylum Cnidaria o Hydra o Jellies o Anenomes o Corals o Characteristics § Radial symmetry (many planes of division means equal halves) § Allows them to meet their environment equally § Two basic body forms • Medusa o Jelly stage, bell shape • Polyp o Coral § Simple in structure, don’t move past the gastrula stage § Two tissues layers, ecto and endo, no meso § Incomplete gut with one opening • Gastrovascular cavity § Tentacles with stinging cells (cnidocytes) which contain nematocyst • Nerve net – simple nervous system • Contractile fibers o The Portugese man of war is a colony of polyps, not a jelly - Evolution of bilateral symmetry o Phylum Platyheminthes: flat worms § Free living or parasitic (flat worms, tapeworms, flukes) § Flatworm characteristics • Bilateral symmetry o Some degree of cephalization • Protostomes o Incomplete gut o Acoelomates o 3 tissue germ layers, so they have organs • Organ level of characterization o Nervous system with cephalization o Reproductive organs (hermaphrodites) o Excretory system (flame cells)


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