Invasive species- 3.29.16
Invasive species- 3.29.16 FWF 250
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abby Wilson on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FWF 250 at UTK taught by Professor Christopher Graves in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Conservation in Agriculture and Forestry at UTK.
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Date Created: 03/29/16
Invasive Species- 3.29.16 INTRO Invasive Species: a nonnative species whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental h arm or harm to humans o Both plants and animals Invasive ≠ Noxious! Noxious: plants that have been determined to be major pests of agricultural ecosystems >4000 species of nonnative plants have become established as free-living populations in the US (apples, soy beans, sweet potato, and tomatoes) o only 10% of these are invasive! A leading cause of population decline and extinction of animals (top 3) Identified as 2ndmost important threat to the natural environment in the United States, only behind habitat destruction 100M+ acres (roughly the size of CA) are suffering from invasive species infestations THE REASON ASIAN SPECIES ARE SO SUCCESSFUL IN US CITIES: our large cities are generally on the same latitude ∴ same climate *People are CARELESS* ORIGIN Human activities: domestic/foreign trade, recreation, live plant and food industries, firewood, aquaculture, pet trade, tourism, hitch-a-ride Intentional or accidental Species often start near the port, where they are able to hop onto the ships BALLAST WATER: water held in tanks and cargo holds of ships to increase stability and maneuverability during transit: ships dump this ballast water at their destination, effectively releasing any aquatic species that were in that water from where they filled their ballast. (big problem in the great lakes) Larva in wooden packing material Invasive species are often brought over to serve a purpose, then it backfires (kudzu!) IMPACTS Property values Agricultural productivity Public utility operations Natural ecosystem functions Outcompete native species o Predation, degradation, competition for resources Tourism COSTS $120B in damages each year detection prevention response/control/management restoration research outreach international cooperation MANAGEMENT AGENCIES Priority-Based Systems: SCORING BASED ON: o Threat/damage to the environment o Management difficulty o Economic impacts o Threat to human health and safety*** o Ecological impact o Current distribution o Rate of spread ***This is when people start paying attention; when it directly affects them IMPORTANT INVASIVE SPECIES: >1500 plants nearly 500 insects almost 200 diseases 66 mollusks 102 fish 82 reptiles 32 mammals 7 amphibians 30 nematodes Garlic mustard Asian Silver Carp: “King of the Illinois River” o Got here just 20 years ago o 9/10 fish in one stretch of the Illinois River are Asian carp o imported to clean catfish ponds then escaped into the MI river o kept from the great lakes with electric barriers ZEBRA MUSSEL African Killer Honeybees Burmese Python Starlings o >200M Kudzu o “The vine that ate the south” o covers up to 8M acres in the south o can grow a foot a day o products are made from kudzu now (jellies) o white tailed deer and groundhogs LOVE to eat kudzu Oriental Bittersweet 2 o Planted as an ornamental plant o Wreaths made from it o When the wreaths dry and are thrown out, birds eat all the seeds then defecate the germinated seeds and the oriental bittersweet then suffocates everything it lands on Emerald Ash Borer o Detrimental to ash trees Gambian pouch rats Giant African land snail o Carries human meningitis o Eats 500 different plants o Eats stucco off houses!!! Redbay Ambrosia Beetle Cogon Grass: intended just to package oranges that were shipped to the US, seeds dispersed and now there’s an infestation o Creating a biological desert along the East coast o Pyrophoric plant so when people try to burn it out it just spreads AMERICAN CHESTNUT LEGACY “Redwood of the East” in the early 1900s, 25% of forest trees from Maine to Alabama were American chestnut average 4-6 ft in diameter and over 100 ft tall important to Native Americans and European settlers Chestnut is the main wood used in log cabin construction as well as: o Telephone polls o Fence ties o Logs for structure o Hardwood floors o Most things that are made with wood: used to almost always be chestnut Lightweight and straight grain *certain trees have interlacing wood fibers that make them very hard to split* ROT RISISTENT “Wormy chestnut” for the holes that look bored into it ECOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT: chestnuts were a huge food source for primary consumers o Oak tree bumper crop: 4 000 acres o Chestnut bumper crop (same size) : 6 000 acres! Chestnuts—small inside burry coating MANY SPECIES PREFER SMALLER NUTS/SEEDS!!! EASIER TO EAT Flower during June never frozen out Important cash crop for many Appalachian families As years-end holidays approach, nuts by the railroad car-full were shipped to New York, Philadelphia and other cities where street vendors sold them fresh roasted CHESTNUT BLIGHT: FUNGUS o Orange swollen or sunken cankers, fruiting bodies the size of pin heads, on the main stem 3 o These cankers girdle the stems of young saplings, effectively killing parts of the tree beyond the affected zone o Arrived in 1904, brought over on CHINESE CHESTNUT PLANT MATERIAL o “WE GOTTA STOP PLANTING SHIT FROM OTHER COUNTRIES” o gone within 100 years American Chestnut Foundation: o trying to develop blight-resistant American chestnut trees: have created a hybrid with 98% American Chestnut DNA and 2% Chinese Chestnut o goal is to have it in all ways like the American Chestnut Tree, but with the blight resistance of the Chinese 4
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