PSYS 100 Week 12 Lecture Notes
PSYS 100 Week 12 Lecture Notes Psys 100
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddie Butkus on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psys 100 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Paul Biner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychological Science in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 03/29/16
▯ Intelligence: the ability to adapt to one’s environment (Socrates) Estimating someone’s intelligence level can be very difficult task! Why? o We can’t always assume someone’s intelligence from their behavior o Some people demonstrate intelligent behaviors in one are but lack them completely in other areas So, what do intelligence tests measure o Intelligence tests are, for the most part, a measure of your ability to succeed academically (that is they measure academic aptitude) o This, we often use other types of tests o Achievement tests – tests designed to measure how much information a person has learned about a topic A good example are the tests we take in this course. Intelligence testing began in 1905 in France o Alfred Binet o Theophile Simon o Goal: To identify and target mentally challenged children in the French school system One of the most influential IQ tests today is a direct result of Binet & Simon’s work. “Standford- Binet Intelligence Test” In early 1900’s intelligence scores of children were not recorded directly, byt rather, put into a quotient. (Mental age/ Actual Age) x 100 = IQ Highly intelligent child? o 15/10 x 100 IQ Test Development o Test: a standardized device designed to measure a person’s responses to a specific stimuli (which are typically problems and questions) o 3 important concepts in test construction: Standardization The process of developing a uniform, standard procedure for administering and scoring a test. Rules must be established so that no test taker is given an unfair advantage Norms Test scores and corresponding percentile ranks of a large, representative sample of individuals. And, we compare your score to the norms. Norms must be established using a representative sample Representative Samples A large sample of people that are representative of ALL people just like you (e.g., 18-22yr old English speaking males and females) To be fair, we should only compare your score to people who are just like YOU E.g., SAT’s are not required for college applicants older than 22 because there are no norms. Norms are constantly changing – only use HS GPA o Reliability and Validity Reliability: stability or consistency of a set of test scores A test is said to be reliable if it yields about the same score for the same individual in repeated testing. Assessing test reliability: Test-retest method: administer same test to the same individuals on two different occasions Alternate Forms: administer two different versions of the same test to the same individuals on two different occasions Split-Half Method: administer the test once and calculate individuals scores on each half of the test Validity: a test has “validity” if it measures what it’s supposed to measure. A test should measure that and only that! Thus, intelligence tests should measure intelligence and nothing else (not cultural, racial, or language experiences, socioeconomic status, gender, age, etc.) What is intelligence? o Intelligence is probably a group of abilities as opposed to a specific ability o BUT, defining it has been extremely difficult (hundreds of definitions have been proposed o The most widely-accepted definition of intelligence was proposed by David Weschler o Intelligence is “the aggregate” or global capacity of the individual” to: 1. Act with purpose 2. Think rationally (i.e. logically) 3. Deal effectively with one’s environment o Dealing effectively with the world involves: Already having acquired a lot of knowledge and having the capacity to acquire new knowledge This is why vocabulary breadth is often highly associated with intelligence A large vocabulary not only reflects what has already been learned, but also enhances the capacity to learn new things. o People can act with purpose, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment in many different areas of their behavior This notion has led to the idea that there are Multiple Intelligences The most popular theory of multiple intelligence was proposed by Howard Gardner Gardner proposed seven different types of intelligence o That is people can be intelligent in seven difference areas of their lives Seven Types: o Linguistic Intelligence: skilled in speaking, listening, reading and writing (poets, writers, trial lawyers, evangelists) o Mathematical Intelligence: people highly skilled in solving mathematical puzzles and equations, programming computers, analyzing statistical data (engineers, software specialists, Einstein) o Spatial Intelligence: people highly skilled in visualizing objects and themselves in 2 and 3 dimensional spaces, navigating from one location to another without difficulty (pilots, astronauts, architects, mechanics, chess masters, painters) o Musical Intelligence: people highly skilled in playing an instrument, composing music, appreciating the tonal qualities of sound (Mozart, Clapton, page, lennon) o Body- Movement Intelligence: people highly skilled in controlling gross and fine movements of the body. People highly successful at activities involving running, jumping, hunting, fighting, small detail work with hands (Olympic skaters, boxers, jewelers, surgeons) o Interpersonal Intelligence: people highly skilled at reading and understanding other people (leaders, ministers, rabbis, psychotherapists) o Intrapersonal Intelligence: people have great insight into their own thoughts, feelings, and actions (philosophers, theoreticians, theologians) o Cultural Biases in IQ testing: Life experiences affect language experiences which affect performance on IQ tests Based on this logic, some psychologists have argued that… Certain groups of people (not exposed to the same education or life experiences as the white middle class) are bound to do poorly on IQ tests because of their “very different” life experiences. In other words… IQ tests are culturally biased. ▯ Essay Test: IN CLASS Thursday 3/31 ▯ Multiple Choice Test: Opens Thursday 3/31 @12pm, Closes Tuesday 4/5 @ 2pm ▯ ▯ Motivation Ch. 11 ▯ ▯ The Study of Motivation: An attempt to understand what causes us to choose our behavior, what energizes us to behavior, what maintains behavior and what stops behavior.. and all of the perceptual and attitude changes that accompany these stages. ▯ ▯ ESSAY ALERT!! 4 major classes of Motivational Theory ▯ ▯ Four Major Classes of Motivational Theory Drive Theories Expectancy Theories Cognitive Theories Humanistic Theories ▯ ▯ Drive Theories: A set of theories that explain behavior by emphasizing the internal conditions of arousal (drives) which energize the seeking of maintaining of some goal (which is usually to re- establish a state of psychological well-being or homeostasis) o EX: Food, Sex ▯ Expectancy Theories: Explanations of motivated behavior that emphasize a person’s expectation to succeed and his/her need to achieve (learned drive) ▯ Cognitive Theories: A set of theories that emphasize an individual’s choice regarding life goals and the means of attaining them (thinking/deciding are most important) ▯ Humanistic Theories: Theories emphasizing the tendency of humans to strive to reach perfection, total self-acceptance, and self-actualization. Self-Actualization – The process of realizing one’s uniquely human potential for good. o It is achieving everything that you are capable of achieving ▯ NONE of the 4 types of theories alone can explain all motivated behavior ▯ ▯ Drive Theory Example: Hunger Drive o Most dieters agree that anyone can lose weight, but very few can keep it off. o Why? Obesity changes the structure of fat cells and this lowers the level of energy expended. The metabolic rate of obese e=people is not only lower than normal-weight people when they are awake, but also when they are asleep. o In order to understand obesity, psychologists have extensively studied the hunger drive. o What causes hunger? Low Blood Sugar (glucose) Blood sugar is needed for normal cell activity. When the blood sugar is low, the body sends signals to the brain and we feel hungry. Hypothalamus controls feelings of hunger and eating behavior. Lateral Hypothalamus: o “Start eating center” when stimulated, we feel hungry Ventromedial hypothalamus: o “stop eating center” when stimulated, we feel full o So, do obese people have a stronger hunger drive than the rest of us? Two popular theories of obesity say NO. Physiological View of Obesity: Several researchers have shown that the number of fat cells we will ultimately have as adults is genetically programmed from birth (and this will determine our weight as adults) Body fat is stored in fat cells throughout the body Obese people have been found to have three times the number of fat cells compared to normal-weight people. Again, these researchers propose that it is our genetic makeup that determines the number of fat cells However, the size of out fat cells appears to be determined by our nutritional experiences. That is, by what and how much we eat. So, people born with many fat cells (obese people) are more likely to stay fat for two reasons: Dieting decreases the size of fat cells, but not the number of them (you cannot get rid of fat cells once they are there) Problem? o Obese people have SO many fat cells throughout their bodies that shrinking them does not make a bit of difference in terms of weight loss When dieting, the body automatically tries to maintain the size of fat cells at a constant level. The body does this by naturally decreasing energy levels when food consumption goes down o People on diets often report fatigue o Set-point Theory: Energy In (Food) = Energy Out (Activity) When dieters do start losing weight (by decreasing food intake and really increasing exercise levels) Fat cells being to shrink The body revolts A “food deprivation state” is induced This explanation of obesity is very compelling in that our data show that: Most formerly overweight people report that they are constantly battling weight gain 50% of all people who lose weight will gain it ALL back within 3 years (99% will fain it back within 9 years) Every concentration camp survivor of WWII returned to their original weight within one year of being released. Each time you died, it will take longer to lose the same amount of weight and the weight will return faster. The human body fights weight loss! What about liposuction? Liposuction will eliminate unwanted fat and weight but for the short-term only. o However, research shows that within 2-4 years, the remaining fat cells will expand in size to fill the void left by the removal of fat cells. o Individuals will return to the same weight and shape they were before the liposuction.
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